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      The prevalence of occult leiomyosarcoma at surgery for presumed uterine fibroids: a meta-analysis


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          There is a concern regarding the risk of occult leiomyosarcomas found at surgery for presumed benign fibroids. We sought to produce a comprehensive review of published data addressing this issue and provide high-quality prevalence estimates for clinical practice and future research. A comprehensive literature search using the PubMed/MEDLINE database and the Cochrane Library was performed. Inclusion criteria were human studies, peer-reviewed, with original data, involving cases for surgery in which fibroid-related indications were the primary reason for surgery, and histopathology was provided. Candidate studies (4864) were found; 3844 were excluded after review of the abstract. The remaining 1020 manuscripts were reviewed in their entirety, and 133 were included in the Bayesian binomial random effect meta-analysis. The estimated rate of leiomyosarcoma was 0.51 per 1000 procedures (95 % credible interval (CrI) 0.16–0.98) or approximately 1 in 2000. Restricting the meta-analysis to the 64 prospective studies resulted in a substantially lower estimate of 0.12 leiomyosarcomas per 1000 procedures (95 % CrI <0.01–0.75) or approximately 1 leiomyosarcoma per 8300 surgeries. Results suggest that the prevalence of occult leiomyosarcomas at surgery for presumed uterine fibroids is much less frequent than previously estimated. This rate should be incorporated into both clinical practice and future research.

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          The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10397-015-0894-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references134

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          Laparoscopic versus abdominal myomectomy: a prospective, randomized trial to evaluate benefits in early outcome.

          Our purpose was to investigate the advantages of laparoscopic myomectomy versus laparotomy. A prospective, randomized trial was performed on 40 women, 22 to 44 years old, undergoing myomectomy. Patients were randomized to have laparoscopy (n=20) or laparotomy (n=20). The intensity of pain was assessed by a visual analog scale at 0, 1, 2, and 3 days postoperatively. The proportions of patients who were analgesic free on day 2, discharged from the hospital by day 3, and feeling fully recuperated on day 15 were also compared. The intensity of postoperative pain was lower (p<0.05) after laparoscopy than after laparotomy. A higher (p<0.05) proportion of patients was analgesic free on day 2, discharged from hospital by day 3, and feeling fully recuperated on day 15 after laparoscopy compared with laparotomy. Laparoscopic myomectomy may offer the benefits of lower postoperative pain and shorter recovery time in comparison with laparotomy.
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            Leiomyosarcoma in a series of hysterectomies performed for presumed uterine leiomyomas.

            The incidence of leiomyosarcoma in uterine leiomyomas is estimated to be between 0.13 to 0.29%. However, the exact incidence of leiomyosarcoma in uteri removed with a preoperative diagnosis of benign uterine leiomyomas has not been previously reported. Between 1983 and 1988, a total of 1432 patients in Women's Hospital, a self-referred indigent population, had a hysterectomy planned because of abnormal uterine bleeding or abdominal pain associated with the presence of uterine leiomyomas, or because of a pelvic mass thought to be uterine leiomyoma of sufficient size or character to warrant surgical exploration. The ages of these women ranged from 36 to 62 years and the presence of leiomyosarcoma in the hysterectomy specimens increased steadily from the fourth to seventh decades of age (0.2%, 0.9%, 1.4%, and 1.7%, respectively). Preoperative histologic examination of the endometrium was performed in eight patients. Three of the eight patients had a preoperative tissue diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma that was clinically confined to the uterus. After the hysterectomy in the 1429 patients with presumed benign disease, histologic diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma was made in seven (0.49%). There was no evidence of malignancy in the endometrial sampling of any of these seven patients and the diagnosis was suspected intraoperatively in only three. Preoperative uterine size ranged from 8 to 20 weeks' gestational size and postoperative uterine weight ranged from 120 to 1100 gm. Seven of the 10 patients had symptoms of abnormal uterine bleeding. Between the ages of 40 and 60 years, 1% (8 of 817) of women with presumed uterine leiomyomas producing symptoms that necessitated hysterectomy in this series had leiomyosarcoma diagnosis postoperatively. Such treatments as gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, endometrial ablation, myomectomy by hysteroscopy or laparotomy instead of hysterectomy in such women could delay the diagnosis and definitive treatment of leiomyosarcoma.
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              Uterine sarcoma in patients operated on for presumed leiomyoma and rapidly growing leiomyoma.

              To determine the incidence of uterine sarcoma in patients operated on for symptomatic uterine leiomyomas or "rapidly growing" leiomyomas. We reviewed the medical records of 1332 women admitted to either of two community hospitals between 1988-1992 for hysterectomy or myomectomy for uterine leiomyomas. The incidence of leiomyosarcoma, endometrial stromal sarcoma, and mixed mesodermal tumor was calculated. Patient ages, admitting symptoms, and operative and pathologic findings were analyzed. The study included 371 women (28%) operated on for rapidly growing leiomyomas. All patients operated on during the same interval and found to have a uterine sarcoma were reviewed. One of the 1332 patients operated on for presumed leiomyoma was found to have a leiomyosarcoma. This women was the only patient found to have a sarcoma among 371 women operated on for rapid growth of the uterus. None of 198 patients who met a published definition of rapid growth had a uterine sarcoma. Two women (0.15%) had endometrial stromal sarcoma, but none had a mixed mesodermal tumor. During the same interval, nine additional patients were found to have uterine sarcomas, and for these women, the preoperative diagnosis was sarcoma in four, endometrial cancer in three, ovarian cancer in one, and prolapsed uterus in one. The total incidence of uterine sarcoma (leiomyosarcoma, endometrial stromal sarcoma, and mixed mesodermal tumor) among patients operated on for uterine leiomyoma is extremely low (0.23%). The incidence of sarcoma among patients having surgery for "rapidly growing" leiomyoma (0.27%) or among those who met published criteria for rapid growth (0%) does not substantiate the concept of increased risk of sarcoma in these women.

                Author and article information

                608-824-0075 , epritts@wisconsinfertilty.com
                Gynecol Surg
                Gynecol Surg
                Gynecological Surgery
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                19 May 2015
                19 May 2015
                : 12
                : 3
                : 165-177
                [ ]Wisconsin Fertility Institute, Middleton, WI USA
                [ ]University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI USA
                [ ]Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA USA
                [ ]University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA USA
                [ ]Reproductive Associates of Delaware, Newark, DE USA
                © The Author(s) 2015

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                Review Article
                Custom metadata
                © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

                Obstetrics & Gynecology
                leiomyosarcoma,fibroids,surgery,incidental malignancy,prevalence
                Obstetrics & Gynecology
                leiomyosarcoma, fibroids, surgery, incidental malignancy, prevalence


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