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      Systematic 16S rRNA gene sequencing of atypical clinical isolates identified 27 new bacterial species associated with humans.

      Journal of Clinical Microbiology
      Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Bacteria, classification, genetics, isolation & purification, Bacteria, Anaerobic, Bacterial Infections, microbiology, Bacterial Typing Techniques, Child, Preschool, Female, Genes, Bacterial, Gram-Negative Bacteria, Gram-Positive Cocci, Gram-Positive Rods, Humans, Infant, Newborn, Male, Middle Aged, RNA, Bacterial, RNA, Ribosomal, 16S, Species Specificity

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          Clinical microorganisms isolated during a 5-year study in our hospital that could not be identified by conventional criteria were studied by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Each isolate yielded a > or =1,400-bp sequence containing <5 ambiguities which was compared with the GenBank 16S rRNA gene library; 1,404 such isolates were tested, and 120 were considered unique (27 isolates) or rare (< or =10 cases reported in the literature) human pathogens. Eleven new species, "Actinobaculum massiliae," "Candidatus Actinobaculum timonae," Paenibacillus sanguinis, "Candidatus Bacteroides massiliae," Chryseobacterium massiliae, "Candidatus Chryseobacterium timonae," Paenibacillus massiliensis, "Candidatus Peptostreptococcus massiliae," "Candidatus Prevotella massiliensis," Rhodobacter massiliensis, and "Candidatus Veillonella atypica" were identified. Sixteen species were obtained from humans for the first time. Our results show the important role that 16S rRNA gene sequence-based bacterial identification currently plays in recognizing unusual and emerging bacterial diseases.

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