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      Genome-Wide Detection of Predicted Non-coding RNAs Related to the Adhesion Process in Vibrio alginolyticus Using High-Throughput Sequencing

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          The ability of bacteria to adhere to fish mucus can be affected by environmental conditions and is considered to be a key virulence factor of Vibrio alginolyticus. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this ability remains unclear. Our previous study showed that stress conditions such as exposure to Cu, Pb, Hg, and low pH are capable of reducing the adhesion ability of V. alginolyticus. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play a crucial role in the intricate regulation of bacterial gene expression, thereby affecting bacterial pathogenicity. Thus, we hypothesized that ncRNAs play a key role in the V. alginolyticus adhesion process. To validate this, we combined high-throughput sequencing with computational techniques to detect ncRNA dynamics in samples after stress treatments. The expression of randomly selected novel ncRNAs was confirmed by QPCR. Among the significantly altered ncRNAs, 30 were up-regulated and 2 down-regulated by all stress treatments. The QPCR results reinforced the reliability of the sequencing data. Target prediction and KEGG pathway analysis indicated that these ncRNAs are closely related to pathways associated with in vitro adhesion, and our results indicated that chemical stress-induced reductions in the adhesion ability of V. alginolyticus might be due to the perturbation of ncRNA expression. Our findings provide important information for further functional characterization of ncRNAs during the adhesion process of V. alginolyticus.

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          Most cited references 22

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          A system of cluster analysis for genome-wide expression data from DNA microarray hybridization is described that uses standard statistical algorithms to arrange genes according to similarity in pattern of gene expression. The output is displayed graphically, conveying the clustering and the underlying expression data simultaneously in a form intuitive for biologists. We have found in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that clustering gene expression data groups together efficiently genes of known similar function, and we find a similar tendency in human data. Thus patterns seen in genome-wide expression experiments can be interpreted as indications of the status of cellular processes. Also, coexpression of genes of known function with poorly characterized or novel genes may provide a simple means of gaining leads to the functions of many genes for which information is not available currently.
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            Bacteria possess numerous and diverse means of gene regulation using RNA molecules, including mRNA leaders that affect expression in cis, small RNAs that bind to proteins or base pair with target RNAs, and CRISPR RNAs that inhibit the uptake of foreign DNA. Although examples of RNA regulators have been known for decades in bacteria, we are only now coming to a full appreciation of their importance and prevalence. Here, we review the known mechanisms and roles of regulatory RNAs, highlight emerging themes, and discuss remaining questions.
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              A glycine-dependent riboswitch that uses cooperative binding to control gene expression.

              We identified a previously unknown riboswitch class in bacteria that is selectively triggered by glycine. A representative of these glycine-sensing RNAs from Bacillus subtilis operates as a rare genetic on switch for the gcvT operon, which codes for proteins that form the glycine cleavage system. Most glycine riboswitches integrate two ligand-binding domains that function cooperatively to more closely approximate a two-state genetic switch. This advanced form of riboswitch may have evolved to ensure that excess glycine is efficiently used to provide carbon flux through the citric acid cycle and maintain adequate amounts of the amino acid for protein synthesis. Thus, riboswitches perform key regulatory roles and exhibit complex performance characteristics that previously had been observed only with protein factors.

                Author and article information

                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                28 April 2016
                : 7
                1Key Laboratory of Healthy Mariculture for the East China Sea, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries College, Jimei University Xiamen, China
                2College of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Xiamen University Xiamen, China
                3State Key Laboratory of Large Yellow Croaker Breeding Ningde, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Hongyue Dang, Xiamen University, China

                Reviewed by: Haiwei Luo, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; Ding He, University of Georgia, USA; Shin-ichi Miyoshi, Okayama University, Japan

                *Correspondence: Qingpi Yan, yanqp@

                Co-first author.

                This article was submitted to Aquatic Microbiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

                Copyright © 2016 Huang, Hu, Su, Qin, Kong, Zhao, Ma, Xu, Lin, Zheng and Yan.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 37, Pages: 10, Words: 0
                Original Research

                Microbiology & Virology

                adhesion, vibrio alginolyticus, ncrna, transcriptome


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