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      Driving skills in unmedicated first- and recurrent-episode schizophrenic patients

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          Most cited references 23

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          Longitudinal studies of cognition and functional outcome in schizophrenia: implications for MATRICS.

          It is generally accepted that cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are related to functional outcome. However, support for longitudinal relationships between cognition and functional outcome has not been as well documented. The current paper presents a review of 18 recently published longitudinal studies (minimum 6-month follow up) of the relationships between cognition and community outcome in schizophrenia. Results from these studies reveal considerable support for longitudinal associations between cognition and community outcome in schizophrenia. These studies demonstrate that cognitive assessment predict later functional outcome and provide a rationale for psychopharmacological interventions for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Although the relationships between cognition and community outcome are well-supported, it is clear that community functioning is also affected by a host of factors apart from cognition that are usually not considered in clinical trial studies (e.g., psychosocial rehabilitation and educational/vocational opportunities). In the second part of the paper, we consider intervening steps between cognitive performance measures and community outcome. These steps are apt to have important implications for clinical trials of cognition-enhancing agents in schizophrenia.
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            Neurocognitive deficit in schizophrenia: a quantitative review of the evidence.

            The neurocognitive literature on test performance in schizophrenia is reviewed quantitatively. The authors report 22 mean effect sizes from 204 studies to index schizophrenia versus control differences in global and selective verbal memory, nonverbal memory, bilateral and unilateral motor performance, visual and auditory attention, general intelligence, spatial ability, executive function, language, and interhemispheric tactile-transfer test performance. Moderate to large raw effect sizes (d > .60) were obtained for all 22 neurocognitive test variables, and none of the associated confidence intervals included zero. The results indicate that schizophrenia is characterized by a broadly based cognitive impairment, with varying degrees of deficit in all ability domains measured by standard clinical tests.
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              Neurocognition in first-episode schizophrenia: a meta-analytic review.

              Compromised neurocognition is a core feature of schizophrenia. Following Heinrichs and Zakzanis's (1998) seminal meta-analysis of middle-aged and predominantly chronic schizophrenia samples, the aim of this study is to provide a meta-analysis of neurocognitive findings from 47 studies of first-episode (FE) schizophrenia published through October 2007. The meta-analysis uses 43 separate samples of 2,204 FE patients with a mean age of 25.5 and 2,775 largely age- and gender-matched control participants. FE samples demonstrated medium-to-large impairments across 10 neurocognitive domains (mean effect sizes from -0.64 to -1.20). Findings indicate that impairments are reliably and broadly present by the FE, approach or match the degree of deficit shown in well-established illness, and are maximal in immediate verbal memory and processing speed. Larger IQ impairments in the FE compared to the premorbid period, but comparable to later phases of illness suggests deterioration between premorbid and FE phases followed by deficit stability at the group level. Considerable heterogeneity of effect sizes across studies, however, underscores variability in manifestations of the illness and a need for improved reporting of sample characteristics to support moderator variable analyses.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
                Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
                Springer Nature America, Inc
                0940-1334
                1433-8491
                February 2017
                October 25 2015
                February 2017
                : 267
                : 1
                : 83-88
                Article
                10.1007/s00406-015-0647-4
                © 2017

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