The relation between renal vein renin activity (RVRA) and renal vein prostaglandin A (PGA) and prostaglandin E (PGE) concentrations was examined in 50 patients with hypertension who underwent renal vein catheterizations for suspected renovascular hypertension. In 14 patients with unilateral renal artery stenosis, mean renal vein PGE concentrations were higher in the renal vein draining the nonischemic kidney, while RVRA was increased in the renal vein draining the ischemic kidney. PGE ratios from the two sides were inversely related to RVRA ratios in this group. In the other 36 patients with either bilateral renal artery stenosis, essential hypertension or nonrenovascular unilateral renal disease, RVRA and PGE concentrations were similar in both kidneys. No relation between RVRA and PGA could be established for any group.