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      Improvements in throat function and qualities of sore throat from locally applied flurbiprofen 8.75 mg in spray or lozenge format: findings from a randomized trial of patients with upper respiratory tract infection in the Russian Federation

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          Abstract

          Objective

          To assess the speed of relief provided by flurbiprofen 8.75 mg spray and lozenge and their effect on many of the different qualities and characteristics of throat pain and discomfort, and the many articulations of the broad term “sore throat” (ST).

          Patients and methods

          Four hundred and forty adults with recent-onset, moderate-to-severe ST due to upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) were randomized to a single dose of either flurbiprofen 8.75 mg spray (n=218) or flurbiprofen 8.75 mg lozenge (n=222). Throat swabs for bacterial culture were taken at baseline. ST relief was assessed at 1 minute, 1 and 2 hours post-dose using the Sore Throat Relief Rating Scale. The change from baseline at 1 and 2 hours post-dose in difficulty swallowing and swollen throat was assessed using the difficulty swallowing scale and the swollen throat scale, respectively. Patients’ experience of URTI symptoms was assessed using a URTI questionnaire at baseline and 2 hours post-dose. The change in Qualities of Sore Throat Index, a 10-item index of qualities of ST, from baseline at 2 hours post-dose was also measured.

          Results

          ST relief was evident in the spray and the lozenge treatment groups at 1 minute, 1 and 2 hours post-dose ( P>0.05). In both groups, scores for difficulty swallowing and swollen throat significantly improved at 1 and 2 hours post-dose compared with baseline. At 2 hours post-dose, the number of patients experiencing URTI symptoms that can be attributed to or associated with ST decreased relative to baseline. The mean change from baseline to 2 hours post-dose for each individual score on the Qualities of Sore Throat Index showed significant improvements for flurbiprofen spray and lozenge (all P<0.0001).

          Conclusion

          Non-inferiority was established, and flurbiprofen spray and lozenge provided effective relief from ST pain and many of the other commonly reported qualities of ST.

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          Most cited references 27

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          A clinical score to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use in patients with sore throat.

          To validate a score based on clinical symptoms and signs for the identification of group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection in general practice patients with score throat. A single throat swab was used as the gold standard for diagnosing GAS infection. Clinical information was recorded by experienced family physicians on standardized encounter forms. Score criteria were identified by means of logistic regression modelling of data from patients enrolled in the first half of the study. The score was then validated among the remaining patients. University-affiliated family medicine centre in Toronto. A total of 521 patients aged 3 to 76 years presenting with a new upper respiratory tract infection from December 1995 to February 1997. Sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios for identification of GAS infection with the score approach compared with throat culture. Proportion of patients prescribed antibiotics, throat culture use, and sensitivity and specificity with usual physician care and with score-based recommendations were compared. A score was developed ranging in value from 0 to 4. The sensitivity of the score for identifying GAS infection was 83.1%, compared with 69.4% for usual physician care (p = 0.06); the specificity values of the 2 approaches were similar. Among patients aged 3 to 14 years, the sensitivity of the score approach was higher than that of usual physician care (96.9% v. 70.6%) (p < 0.05). The proportion of patients receiving initial antibiotic prescriptions would have been reduced 48% by following score-based recommendations compared with observed physician prescribing (p < 0.001), without any increase in throat culture use. An age-appropriate sore throat score identified GAS infection in children and adults with sore throat better than usual care by family physicians, with significant reductions in unnecessary prescribing of antibiotics. A randomized trial comparing the 2 approaches is recommended to determine the ability of the score approach to reduce unnecessary prescribing of antibiotics during routine clinical encounters.
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            Sore throat pain in the evaluation of mild analgesics.

            A double-blind, single-dose parallel study was conducted to assess refinements of a previously tested model for evaluating treatment of sore throat pain. Patients with tonsillopharyngitis randomly received either 400 mg ibuprofen (n = 39), 1000 mg acetaminophen (n = 40), or placebo (n = 41). At hourly intervals for 6 hours the patients reported pain intensity and pain relief on conventional scales and two sensory qualities of throat pain ("swollen throat" and "difficulty swallowing") on two new visual analog scales. Both active agents were significantly more effective than placebo for all efficacy measurements (p less than 0.01). Ibuprofen, 400 mg, was more effective than acetaminophen, 1000 mg, on all rating scales, conventional and new, at all time points after 2 hours and overall (p less than 0.01). There were no side effects. We conclude that sore throat is a pain model that can be used to discriminate between active medication and placebo, as well as between two effective over-the-counter analgesics.
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              Mechanisms of symptoms of the common cold and influenza.

               Ron Eccles (2007)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2018
                01 June 2018
                : 11
                : 1045-1055
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Federal State Establishment Clinical Diagnostic Medical Center, Saint Petersburg, Russia
                [2 ]Reckitt Benckiser (Russia), Moscow, Russia
                [3 ]Reckitt Benckiser Healthcare International Ltd, Slough, Berkshire, UK
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Natalia Burova, Federal State Establishment Clinical Diagnostic Medical Center, 3 Morskoy Prospekt, 1971100 Saint Petersburg, Russia, Tel +7 812 305 2481, Fax +7 912 305 2452, Email nnburova@ 123456rambler.ru
                Article
                jpr-11-1045
                10.2147/JPR.S149331
                5989702
                © 2018 Burova et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                lozenge, spray, non-inferiority, flurbiprofen

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