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      Individual Differences in Holistic and Compositional Language Processing

      research-article
      1
      Journal of Cognition
      Ubiquity Press
      backward transition probability, individual differences, chunking, inhibition, shifting, lexical co-occurrence

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          Abstract

          Individual differences in cognitive abilities are ubiquitous across the spectrum of proficient language users. Although speakers differ with regard to their memory capacity, ability for inhibiting distraction, and ability to shift between different processing levels, comprehension is generally successful. However, this does not mean it is identical across individuals; listeners and readers may rely on different processing strategies to exploit distributional information in the service of efficient understanding. In the following psycholinguistic reading experiment, we investigate potential sources of individual differences in the processing of co-occurring words. Participants read modifier-noun bigrams like absolute silence in a self-paced reading task. Backward transition probability (BTP) between the two lexemes was used to quantify the prominence of the bigram as a whole in comparison to the frequency of its parts. Of five individual difference measures (processing speed, verbal working memory, cognitive inhibition, global-local scope shifting, and personality), two proved to be significantly associated with the effect of BTP on reading times. Participants who could inhibit a distracting global environment in order to more efficiently retrieve a single part and those that preferred the local level in the shifting task showed greater effects of the co-occurrence probability of the parts. We conclude that some participants are more likely to retrieve bigrams via their parts and their co-occurrence statistics whereas others more readily retrieve the two words together as a single chunked unit.

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          Fitting Linear Mixed-Effects Models Usinglme4

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            The Nature and Organization of Individual Differences in Executive Functions: Four General Conclusions.

            Executive functions (EFs)-a set of general-purpose control processes that regulate one's thoughts and behaviors-have become a popular research topic lately and have been studied in many subdisciplines of psychological science. This article summarizes the EF research that our group has conducted to understand the nature of individual differences in EFs and their cognitive and biological underpinnings. In the context of a new theoretical framework that we have been developing (the unity/diversity framework), we describe four general conclusions that have emerged from our research. Specifically, we argue that individual differences in EFs, as measured with simple laboratory tasks, (1) show both unity and diversity (different EFs are correlated yet separable); (2) reflect substantial genetic contributions; (3) are related to various clinically and societally important phenomena; and (4) show some developmental stability.
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              Working Memory: Theories, Models, and Controversies

              I present an account of the origins and development of the multicomponent approach to working memory, making a distinction between the overall theoretical framework, which has remained relatively stable, and the attempts to build more specific models within this framework. I follow this with a brief discussion of alternative models and their relationship to the framework. I conclude with speculations on further developments and a comment on the value of attempting to apply models and theories beyond the laboratory studies on which they are typically based.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                J Cogn
                J Cogn
                2514-4820
                Journal of Cognition
                Ubiquity Press
                2514-4820
                28 June 2023
                2023
                : 6
                : 1
                : 29
                Affiliations
                [1 ]English Department, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitat Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, DE
                Author notes
                CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Kyla McConnell English Department, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitat Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, DE kyla.mcconnell@ 123456anglistik.unifreiburg.de
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1460-9688
                Article
                10.5334/joc.283
                10312246
                a013da45-7632-4a51-be30-be30ba7f2d3c
                Copyright: © 2023 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 30 August 2022
                : 24 May 2023
                Funding
                Funded by: Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft in Freiburg im Breisgau, doi open-funder-registry10.13039/open_funder_registry10.13039/100010980;
                Funded by: German National Academic Foundation (Studienstiftung des deutschen Volkes), doi open-funder-registry10.13039/open_funder_registry10.13039/501100004350;
                Participant recruitment was funded by the Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft in Freiburg im Breisgau. Research was also supported by a grant from the German National Academic Foundation (Studienstiftung des deutschen Volkes) to the author.
                Categories
                Research Article

                backward transition probability,individual differences,chunking,inhibition,shifting,lexical co-occurrence

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