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      The Compensatory Immune-Regulatory Reflex System (CIRS) in Depression and Bipolar Disorder

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      Molecular Neurobiology

      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Interleukin 10(IL-10) inhibits cytokine synthesis by human monocytes: an autoregulatory role of IL-10 produced by monocytes

           B Bennett,  R Malefyt,  la De (1991)
          In the present study we demonstrate that human monocytes activated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were able to produce high levels of interleukin 10 (IL-10), previously designated cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), in a dose dependent fashion. IL-10 was detectable 7 h after activation of the monocytes and maximal levels of IL-10 production were observed after 24-48 h. These kinetics indicated that the production of IL-10 by human monocytes was relatively late as compared to the production of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), which were all secreted at high levels 4-8 h after activation. The production of IL-10 by LPS activated monocytes was, similar to that of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, TNF alpha, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and G-CSF, inhibited by IL-4. Furthermore we demonstrate here that IL-10, added to monocytes, activated by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), LPS, or combinations of LPS and IFN-gamma at the onset of the cultures, strongly inhibited the production of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, TNF alpha, GM-CSF, and G-CSF at the transcriptional level. Viral-IL-10, which has similar biological activities on human cells, also inhibited the production of TNF alpha and GM-CSF by monocytes following LPS activation. Activation of monocytes by LPS in the presence of neutralizing anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibodies resulted in the production of higher amounts of cytokines relative to LPS treatment alone, indicating that endogenously produced IL-10 inhibited the production of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, TNF alpha, GM-CSF, and G-CSF. In addition, IL-10 had autoregulatory effects since it strongly inhibited IL-10 mRNA synthesis in LPS activated monocytes. Furthermore, endogenously produced IL-10 was found to be responsible for the reduction in class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression following activation of monocytes with LPS. Taken together our results indicate that IL-10 has important regulatory effects on immunological and inflammatory responses because of its capacity to downregulate class II MHC expression and to inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines by monocytes.
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            Interleukin-10: new perspectives on an old cytokine.

            Interleukin-10 (IL-10) has long been recognized to have potent and broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory activity, which has been unequivocally established in various models of infection, inflammation, and even in cancer. However, because of the marginal successes of the initial clinical trials using recombinant IL-10, some of the interest in this cytokine as an anti-inflammatory therapeutic has diminished. New work showing IL-10 production from regulatory T cells and even T-helper 1 T cells has reinvigorated the field and revealed the power of this cytokine to influence immune responses. Furthermore, new preclinical studies suggest that combination therapies, using antibodies to IL-10 along with chemotherapy, can be effective in treating bacterial, viral, or neoplastic diseases. Studies to understand IL-10 gene expression in the various cell types may lead to new therapeutics to enhance or inhibit IL-10 production. In this review, we summarize what is known about the regulation of IL-10 gene expression by various immune cells. We speculate on the promise that this cytokine holds to influence immune responses and mitigate immune pathologies.
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              Interleukin (IL)-6, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R) are elevated in patients with major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis and meta-regression.

              Many studies have explored the association between soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), cytokines and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the results of these studies were not consistent. The aim of our study is to compare the levels of sIL-2R and cytokines in the blood between MDD patients and controls by a meta-analysis and to identify moderators accounting for potential heterogeneity in the levels of sIL-2R and cytokines in MDD patients versus controls by meta-regression analyses. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify studies comparing the levels of sIL-2R and cytokines between MDD patients and controls. We pooled the effect sizes for standardized mean differences (SMD) of the levels of sIL-2R and cytokines. We also performed meta-regression and sensitivity analyses to investigate the roles of age, gender, sample type, ethnic origin and selected studies' quality in explaining potential heterogeneity and differences in results respectively. Twenty-nine studies were selected for this analysis. The levels of sIL-2R, TNF-α and IL-6 in MDD patients were significantly higher than those of healthy controls (SMD=0.555, p<0.001, SMD=0.567, p=0.010; SMD=0.680, p<0.001). Mean age of all subjects was a significant moderator to explain the high heterogeneity of IL-6. Sensitivity analysis found that European but not non-European subjects have higher levels difference of sIL-2R, TNF-α and IL-1β between MDD patients and controls. The severity of MDD was not considered. The blood levels of sIL-2R, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly higher in MDD patients than controls. Age, samples source and ethnic origins may play a potential role in heterogeneity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Molecular Neurobiology
                Mol Neurobiol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0893-7648
                1559-1182
                December 2018
                April 2 2018
                December 2018
                : 55
                : 12
                : 8885-8903
                Article
                10.1007/s12035-018-1016-x
                © 2018

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