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      Globally distributed Xyleborus species reveal recurrent intercontinental dispersal in a landscape of ancient worldwide distributions

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          Abstract

          Background

          Invasive species can have devastating effects on native ecosystems and therefore impose a significant threat to human welfare. The introduction rate of invasive species has accelerated dramatically in recent times due to human activity (anthropogenic effects), with a steadily growing pool of widespread tramp species. We present an in-depth analysis of four pantropical species of Xyleborus ambrosia beetles ( Xyleborus volvulus, Xyleborus perforans, Xyleborus ferrugineus, and Xyleborus affinis) with similar ecology (fungus cultivation in dead wood), reproductive biology (permanent inbreeding) and genetic system (haplodiploidy). The unique combination of reproductive traits and broad host plant usage pre-adapts these beetles for colonizing of new areas.

          Results

          We found that all four species were broadly distributed long before human-assisted dispersal became common, and that the impact of anthropogenic effects varied among the species. For X. volvulus, X. perforans, and X. affinis there was evidence of ancient establishment in numerous regions, but also of abundant recent introductions into previously colonized areas. For X. ferrugineus, we found clear biogeographical structuring of old clades, but little evidence for recent successful introductions.

          Conclusions

          Our results indicate that current human-aided transoceanic dispersal has strongly affected the genetic makeup of three of the species in this study. However, current biogeographical patterns of all four species are equally, if not more strongly, influenced by ancient establishment on different continents.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12862-016-0610-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 52

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          The effects of cross and self fertilisation in the vegetable kingdom /

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            Self-Compatibility and Establishment After 'Long-Distance' Dispersal

             H. G. Baker (1955)
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              Introduction: Population Biology, Evolution, and Control of Invasive Species

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +47 99 36 24 37 , Jostein.Gohli@gmail.com
                Journal
                BMC Evol Biol
                BMC Evol. Biol
                BMC Evolutionary Biology
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2148
                15 February 2016
                15 February 2016
                2016
                : 16
                Affiliations
                [ ]Natural History Collections, University Museum of Bergen, University of Bergen, P.O. box 7800, 5020 Bergen, Norway
                [ ]Department of Biology, University of Bergen, P.O. box 7800, 5020 Bergen, Norway
                Article
                610
                10.1186/s12862-016-0610-7
                4753646
                26877088
                © Gohli et al. 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef , The Research Council of Norway;
                Award ID: 170565/V40
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2016

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