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      A Concise Review on Tissue Engineered Artificial Skin Grafts for Chronic Wound Treatment: Can We Reconstruct Functional Skin Tissue In Vitro?

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          Abstract

          Chronic wounds occur as a consequence of a prolonged inflammatory phase during the healing process, which precludes skin regeneration. Typical treatment for chronic wounds includes application of autografts, allografts collected from cadaver, and topical delivery of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial agents. Nevertheless, the mentioned therapies are not sufficient for extensive or deep wounds. Moreover, application of allogeneic skin grafts carries high risk of rejection and treatment failure. Advanced therapies for chronic wounds involve application of bioengineered artificial skin substitutes to overcome graft rejection as well as topical delivery of mesenchymal stem cells to reduce inflammation and accelerate the healing process. This review focuses on the concept of skin tissue engineering, which is a modern approach to chronic wound treatment. The aim of the article is to summarize common therapies for chronic wounds and recent achievements in the development of bioengineered artificial skin constructs, including analysis of biomaterials and cells widely used for skin graft production. This review also presents attempts to reconstruct nerves, pigmentation, and skin appendages (hair follicles, sweat glands) using artificial skin grafts as well as recent trends in the engineering of biomaterials, aiming to produce nanocomposite skin substitutes (nanofilled polymer composites) with controlled antibacterial activity. Finally, the article describes the composition, advantages, and limitations of both newly developed and commercially available bioengineered skin substitutes.

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          Most cited references 171

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          Design and fabrication of human skin by three-dimensional bioprinting.

          Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting, a flexible automated on-demand platform for the free-form fabrication of complex living architectures, is a novel approach for the design and engineering of human organs and tissues. Here, we demonstrate the potential of 3D bioprinting for tissue engineering using human skin as a prototypical example. Keratinocytes and fibroblasts were used as constituent cells to represent the epidermis and dermis, and collagen was used to represent the dermal matrix of the skin. Preliminary studies were conducted to optimize printing parameters for maximum cell viability as well as for the optimization of cell densities in the epidermis and dermis to mimic physiologically relevant attributes of human skin. Printed 3D constructs were cultured in submerged media conditions followed by exposure of the epidermal layer to the air-liquid interface to promote maturation and stratification. Histology and immunofluorescence characterization demonstrated that 3D printed skin tissue was morphologically and biologically representative of in vivo human skin tissue. In comparison with traditional methods for skin engineering, 3D bioprinting offers several advantages in terms of shape- and form retention, flexibility, reproducibility, and high culture throughput. It has a broad range of applications in transdermal and topical formulation discovery, dermal toxicity studies, and in designing autologous grafts for wound healing. The proof-of-concept studies presented here can be further extended for enhancing the complexity of the skin model via the incorporation of secondary and adnexal structures or the inclusion of diseased cells to serve as a model for studying the pathophysiology of skin diseases.
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            Chitosan preparations for wounds and burns: antimicrobial and wound-healing effects.

            Since its discovery approximately 200 years ago, chitosan, as a cationic natural polymer, has been widely used as a topical dressing in wound management owing to its hemostatic, stimulation of healing, antimicrobial, nontoxic, biocompatible and biodegradable properties. This article covers the antimicrobial and wound-healing effects of chitosan, as well as its derivatives and complexes, and its use as a vehicle to deliver biopharmaceuticals, antimicrobials and growth factors into tissue. Studies covering applications of chitosan in wounds and burns can be classified into in vitro, animal and clinical studies. Chitosan preparations are classified into native chitosan, chitosan formulations, complexes and derivatives with other substances. Chitosan can be used to prevent or treat wound and burn infections not only because of its intrinsic antimicrobial properties, but also by virtue of its ability to deliver extrinsic antimicrobial agents to wounds and burns. It can also be used as a slow-release drug-delivery vehicle for growth factors to improve wound healing. The large number of publications in this area suggests that chitosan will continue to be an important agent in the management of wounds and burns.
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              Contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to skin: collagen deposition and wound repair.

              The bone marrow provides inflammatory cells and endothelial progenitor cells to healing cutaneous wounds. To further explore the bone marrow contribution to skin and healing wounds, we used a chimeric mouse model in which the bone marrow from enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgenic mice is transplanted into normal C57BL mice. We found that normal skin is a target organ for bone marrow-derived cells from both the hematopoietic and the mesenchymal stem cell pool. We present evidence that the bone marrow contribution to normal skin and the healing cutaneous wound is substantially greater than the previously recognized CD45+ subpopulation, where 15%-20% of the spindle-shaped dermal fibroblasts were bone marrow-derived (EGFP+). Furthermore, the bone marrow-derived cells were able to contract a collagen matrix and transcribe both collagen types I and III, whereas the skin-resident cells transcribed only collagen type I. Whereas endothelial progenitor cells were found early during the wound repair process, bone marrow-derived endothelial cells were not seen after epithelialization was complete. Our data show that wound healing involves local cutaneous cells for reconstituting the epidermis but distant bone marrow-derived cells and the adjacent uninjured dermal mesenchymal cells for reconstituting the dermal fibroblast population.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cells
                Cells
                cells
                Cells
                MDPI
                2073-4409
                06 July 2020
                July 2020
                : 9
                : 7
                Affiliations
                Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodzki 1 Street, 20-093 Lublin, Poland; agata.przekora@ 123456umlub.pl ; Tel.: +48-81-448-7026
                Article
                cells-09-01622
                10.3390/cells9071622
                7407512
                32640572
                © 2020 by the author.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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