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      Spray-Type Adhesion Barrier Enhances Safety and Feasibility of Robotic Repeat Liver Resection: Initial Experience and Outcomes

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          Abstract

          Background

          Although various types of adhesion barriers are widely utilized in liver surgery, the safety and feasibility of their use during repeat robotic liver resection (R-RLR) are still unknown.

          Methods

          Among the 68 patients undergoing RLR with the application of the spray-type adhesion barrier at Kokura Memorial Hospital, Kitakyushu, Japan, between 2021 and 2023, 24 cases that underwent R-RLR were included in this study. The included patients were divided into two groups: those who underwent previous hepatectomy with the use of a spray-type adhesion barrier (R-RLR-B, n = 14) and those without its previous use (R-RLR-NB, n = 10). The perioperative outcomes were compared between the groups.

          Results

          There were no differences between the R-RLR-B and R-RLR-NB groups in background characteristics, difficulty scores, operative and console time, or surgical blood loss. Although no difference was found between the groups in the time required for adhesiolysis before the robotic operation, both the time required for robotic adhesiolysis (75 minutes vs. 58 minutes, p = 0.034) and total time for adhesiolysis (192 minutes vs. 141 minutes, p = 0.014) were significantly shorter in the R-RLR-B group than in the R-RLR-NB group. Otherwise, there was no conversion to open hepatectomy, no intraoperative transfusion of red blood cells, no cases of grade B or C post-hepatectomy liver failure, and no mortality in the whole cohort.

          Conclusions

          The spray-type adhesion barrier may not be associated with an increase in the incidence of postoperative complications, including bile leakage or intraperitoneal abscess. In addition, its application during the previous hepatectomy can facilitate a secure R-RLR with reduced time for adhesiolysis. Thus, the use of the spray-type adhesion barrier for R-RLR is safe, effective, and time efficient.

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          Most cited references23

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          Investigation of the freely available easy-to-use software ‘EZR' for medical statistics

          Y Kanda (2012)
          Although there are many commercially available statistical software packages, only a few implement a competing risk analysis or a proportional hazards regression model with time-dependent covariates, which are necessary in studies on hematopoietic SCT. In addition, most packages are not clinician friendly, as they require that commands be written based on statistical languages. This report describes the statistical software ‘EZR' (Easy R), which is based on R and R commander. EZR enables the application of statistical functions that are frequently used in clinical studies, such as survival analyses, including competing risk analyses and the use of time-dependent covariates, receiver operating characteristics analyses, meta-analyses, sample size calculation and so on, by point-and-click access. EZR is freely available on our website (http://www.jichi.ac.jp/saitama-sct/SaitamaHP.files/statmed.html) and runs on both Windows (Microsoft Corporation, USA) and Mac OS X (Apple, USA). This report provides instructions for the installation and operation of EZR.
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            Classification of surgical complications: a new proposal with evaluation in a cohort of 6336 patients and results of a survey.

            Although quality assessment is gaining increasing attention, there is still no consensus on how to define and grade postoperative complications. This shortcoming hampers comparison of outcome data among different centers and therapies and over time. A classification of complications published by one of the authors in 1992 was critically re-evaluated and modified to increase its accuracy and its acceptability in the surgical community. Modifications mainly focused on the manner of reporting life-threatening and permanently disabling complications. The new grading system still mostly relies on the therapy used to treat the complication. The classification was tested in a cohort of 6336 patients who underwent elective general surgery at our institution. The reproducibility and personal judgment of the classification were evaluated through an international survey with 2 questionnaires sent to 10 surgical centers worldwide. The new ranking system significantly correlated with complexity of surgery (P < 0.0001) as well as with the length of the hospital stay (P < 0.0001). A total of 144 surgeons from 10 different centers around the world and at different levels of training returned the survey. Ninety percent of the case presentations were correctly graded. The classification was considered to be simple (92% of the respondents), reproducible (91%), logical (92%), useful (90%), and comprehensive (89%). The answers of both questionnaires were not dependent on the origin of the reply and the level of training of the surgeons. The new complication classification appears reliable and may represent a compelling tool for quality assessment in surgery in all parts of the world.
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              Benefits and harms of adhesion barriers for abdominal surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

              Formation of adhesions after peritoneal surgery results in high morbidity. Barriers to prevent adhesion are seldom applied, despite their ability to reduce the severity of adhesion formation. We evaluated the benefits and harms of four adhesion barriers that have been approved for clinical use. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, CENTRAL, and Embase for randomised clinical trials assessing use of oxidised regenerated cellulose, hyaluronate carboxymethylcellulose, icodextrin, or polyethylene glycol in abdominal surgery. Two researchers independently identified reports and extracted data. We compared use of a barrier with no barrier for nine predefined outcomes, graded for clinical relevance. The primary outcome was reoperation for adhesive small bowel obstruction. We assessed systematic error, random error, and design error with the error matrix approach. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42012003321. Our search returned 1840 results, from which 28 trials (5191 patients) were included in our meta-analysis. The risks of systematic and random errors were low. No trials reported data for the effect of oxidised regenerated cellulose or polyethylene glycol on reoperations for adhesive small bowel obstruction. Oxidised regenerated cellulose reduced the incidence of adhesions (relative risk [RR] 0·51, 95% CI 0·31-0·86). Some evidence suggests that hyaluronate carboxymethylcellulose reduces the incidence of reoperations for adhesive small bowel obstruction (RR 0·49, 95% CI 0·28-0·88). For icodextrin, reoperation for adhesive small bowel obstruction did not differ significantly between groups (RR 0·33, 95% CI 0·03-3·11). No barriers were associated with an increase in serious adverse events. Oxidised regenerated cellulose and hyaluronate carboxymethylcellulose can safely reduce clinically relevant consequences of adhesions. None. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cureus
                Cureus
                2168-8184
                Cureus
                Cureus (Palo Alto (CA) )
                2168-8184
                9 May 2024
                May 2024
                : 16
                : 5
                : e59944
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Surgery, Kokura Memorial Hospital, Kitakyushu, JPN
                Author notes
                Article
                10.7759/cureus.59944
                11164241
                38860095
                a038fdcf-1f2f-43d1-b095-0afe99e13ecb
                Copyright © 2024, Fujikawa et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 4.0., which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 9 May 2024
                Categories
                Gastroenterology
                General Surgery
                Oncology

                postoperative complication,saline-linked cautery method,robotic liver resection,adhesiolysis,spray-type adhesion barrier

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