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Simulating tissue mechanics with agent-based models: concepts, perspectives and some novel results

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      Matrix elasticity directs stem cell lineage specification.

      Microenvironments appear important in stem cell lineage specification but can be difficult to adequately characterize or control with soft tissues. Naive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are shown here to specify lineage and commit to phenotypes with extreme sensitivity to tissue-level elasticity. Soft matrices that mimic brain are neurogenic, stiffer matrices that mimic muscle are myogenic, and comparatively rigid matrices that mimic collagenous bone prove osteogenic. During the initial week in culture, reprogramming of these lineages is possible with addition of soluble induction factors, but after several weeks in culture, the cells commit to the lineage specified by matrix elasticity, consistent with the elasticity-insensitive commitment of differentiated cell types. Inhibition of nonmuscle myosin II blocks all elasticity-directed lineage specification-without strongly perturbing many other aspects of cell function and shape. The results have significant implications for understanding physical effects of the in vivo microenvironment and also for therapeutic uses of stem cells.
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        Exact stochastic simulation of coupled chemical reactions

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          Dynamic Scaling of Growing Interfaces

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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Computational Particle Mechanics
            Comp. Part. Mech.
            Springer Nature
            2196-4378
            2196-4386
            December 2015
            November 2015
            : 2
            : 4
            : 401-444
            10.1007/s40571-015-0082-3
            © 2015
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