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      Molecular identification of Fasciola spp. (Digenea: Platyhelminthes) in cattle from Vietnam Translated title: Identification moléculaire de Fasciola spp. Du Vietnam

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          Fasciola spp. were collected from naturally infected cattle at a local abattoir of Khanh Hoa province, Vietnam, for morphological and genetic investigations. Microscopic examination detected no sperm cells in the seminal vesicles, suggesting a parthenogenetic reproduction of the flukes. Analyses of sequences from the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA revealed that 13 out of 16 isolates were of Fasciola gigantica type, whereas three isolates presented a hybrid sequence from F. gigantica and Fasciola hepatica. Interestingly, all the mitochondrial sequences (partial COI and NDI) were of F. gigantica type, suggesting that the maternal lineage of the hybrid form is from F. gigantica. No intra-sequence variation was detected.

          Translated abstract

          Des individus de Fasciola spp. provenant d’animaux infectés d’un abattoir local de la province de Khanh Hoa (centre du Vietnam) ont été analysés morphologiquement et génétiquement. L’examen des individus au microscope n’a pas montré la présence de sperme dans les vésicules séminales, suggérant l’existence d’une reproduction parthénogénétique. L’analyse des séquences nucléaires ITS1 et ITS2 indique que 13 des 16 isolats correspondent à Fasciola gigantica et que les trois autres isolats seraient des hybrides entre F. gigantica et Fasciola hepatica. L’analyse des séquences mitochondriales COI et NDI de type F. gigantica suggère une origine F. gigantica de lignée maternelle des isolats hybrides. Aucune variation au sein des séquences pour les différents types n’a été détectée pour tous les marqueurs analysés.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Fascioliasis and other plant-borne trematode zoonoses.

          Fascioliasis and other food-borne trematodiases are included in the list of important helminthiases with a great impact on human development. Six plant-borne trematode species have been found to affect humans: Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica and Fasciolopsis buski (Fasciolidae), Gastrodiscoides hominis (Gastrodiscidae), Watsonius watsoni and Fischoederius elongatus (Paramphistomidae). Whereas F. hepatica and F. gigantica are hepatic, the other four species are intestinal parasites. The fasciolids and the gastrodiscid cause important zoonoses distributed throughout many countries, while W. watsoni and F. elongatus have been only accidentally detected in humans. Present climate and global changes appear to increasingly affect snail-borne helminthiases, which are strongly dependent on environmental factors. Fascioliasis is a good example of an emerging/re-emerging parasitic disease in many countries as a consequence of many phenomena related to environmental changes as well as man-made modifications. The ability of F. hepatica to spread is related to its capacity to colonise and adapt to new hosts and environments, even at the extreme inhospitality of very high altitude. Moreover, the spread of F. hepatica from its original European range to other continents is related to the geographic expansion of its original European lymnaeid intermediate host species Galba truncatula, the American species Pseudosuccinea columella, and its adaptation to other lymnaeid species authochthonous in the newly colonised areas. Although fasciolopsiasis and gastrodiscoidiasis can be controlled along with other food-borne parasitoses, fasciolopsiasis still remains a public health problem in many endemic areas despite sustained WHO control programmes. Fasciolopsiasis has become a re-emerging infection in recent years and gastrodiscoidiasis, initially supposed to be restricted to Asian countries, is now being reported in African countries.
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            Food-borne trematodiases.

            An estimated 750 million people are at risk of infections with food-borne trematodes, which comprise liver flukes (Clonorchis sinensis, Fasciola gigantica, Fasciola hepatica, Opisthorchis felineus, and Opisthorchis viverrini), lung flukes (Paragonimus spp.), and intestinal flukes (e.g., Echinostoma spp., Fasciolopsis buski, and the heterophyids). Food-borne trematodiases pose a significant public health and economic problem, yet these diseases are often neglected. In this review, we summarize the taxonomy, morphology, and life cycle of food-borne trematodes. Estimates of the at-risk population and number of infections, geographic distribution, history, and ecological features of the major food-borne trematodes are reviewed. We summarize clinical manifestations, patterns of infection, and current means of diagnosis, treatment, and other control options. The changing epidemiological pattern and the rapid growth of aquaculture and food distribution networks are highlighted, as these developments might be associated with an elevated risk of transmission of food-borne trematodiases. Current research needs are emphasized.
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              Characterisation of Fasciola species from Mainland China by ITS-2 ribosomal DNA sequence.

              Isolates of Fasciola (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Digenea) from different host species and geographical locations in Mainland China were characterised genetically. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was amplified from individual trematodes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the representative amplicons were cloned and sequenced. The length of the ITS-2 sequences was 361-362bp for all Chinese Fasciola specimens sequenced. While there was no variation in length or composition of the ITS-2 sequences among multiple specimens from France, Sichuan and Guangxi, sequence difference of 1.7% (6/362) was detected between specimens from France and Sichuan, and those from Guangxi. Based on ITS-2 sequence data, it was concluded that the Fasciola from Sichuan represented Fasciola hepatica, the one from Guangxi represented Fasciola gigantica and the one from sheep from Heilongjiang may represent an "intermediate genotype", as its ITS-2 sequences were unique in that two different ITS-2 sequences exist in the rDNA array within a single Fasciola worm. One of the sequences is identical to that of F. hepatica, and the other is almost identical to that of F. gigantica in that nucleotides at five of the six polymorphic positions represent F. gigantica. This microheterogeneity is possibly due to sequence polymorphism among copies of the ITS-2 array within the same worm. Based on the sequence differences, a PCR-linked restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay was established for the unequivocal delineation of the Fasciola spp. from Mainland China using restriction endonuclease Hsp92II or RcaI. This assay should provide a valuable tool for the molecular identification and for studying the ecology and population genetic structures of Fasciola spp. from Mainland China and elsewhere.

                Author and article information

                Parasite : journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
                EDP Sciences
                February 2012
                15 February 2012
                : 19
                : 1 ( publisher-idID: parasite/2012/01 )
                : 85-89
                [1 ] Laboratory of Sustainable Environmental Biology, Field Centre studies, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University 232-3 Yomogida, Naruko-onsen, Osaki, Miyagi 989-6711 Japan
                [2 ] Department of Parasitology, Central Viet Nam Veterinary Institute km4 Dong De Street Nha Trang Viet Nam
                [3 ] Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Kafr El Sheikh University Kafr El Sheikh 33516 Egypt
                [4 ] Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology, Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University Ueda 3-18-8, Morioka 020-8550 Japan
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: Yutaka Nakai. E-mail: nakai@ 123456bios.tohoku.ac.jp
                parasite2012191p85 10.1051/parasite/2012191085
                © PRINCEPS Editions, Paris, 2012

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 30, Pages: 5
                Research Note


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