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      Do Actomyosin Single-Molecule Mechanics Data Predict Mechanics of Contracting Muscle?

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          Abstract

          In muscle, but not in single-molecule mechanics studies, actin, myosin and accessory proteins are incorporated into a highly ordered myofilament lattice. In view of this difference we compare results from single-molecule studies and muscle mechanics and analyze to what degree data from the two types of studies agree with each other. There is reasonable correspondence in estimates of the cross-bridge power-stroke distance (7–13 nm), cross-bridge stiffness (~2 pN/nm) and average isometric force per cross-bridge (6–9 pN). Furthermore, models defined on the basis of single-molecule mechanics and solution biochemistry give good fits to experimental data from muscle. This suggests that the ordered myofilament lattice, accessory proteins and emergent effects of the sarcomere organization have only minor modulatory roles. However, such factors may be of greater importance under e.g., disease conditions. We also identify areas where single-molecule and muscle data are conflicting: (1) whether force generation is an Eyring or Kramers process with just one major power-stroke or several sub-strokes; (2) whether the myofilaments and the cross-bridges have Hookean or non-linear elasticity; (3) if individual myosin heads slip between actin sites under certain conditions, e.g., in lengthening; or (4) if the two heads of myosin cooperate.

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          Most cited references 243

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          Mechanism of blebbistatin inhibition of myosin II.

          Blebbistatin is a recently discovered small molecule inhibitor showing high affinity and selectivity toward myosin II. Here we report a detailed investigation of its mechanism of inhibition. Blebbistatin does not compete with nucleotide binding to the skeletal muscle myosin subfragment-1. The inhibitor preferentially binds to the ATPase intermediate with ADP and phosphate bound at the active site, and it slows down phosphate release. Blebbistatin interferes neither with binding of myosin to actin nor with ATP-induced actomyosin dissociation. Instead, it blocks the myosin heads in a products complex with low actin affinity. Blind docking molecular simulations indicate that the productive blebbistatin-binding site of the myosin head is within the aqueous cavity between the nucleotide pocket and the cleft of the actin-binding interface. The property that blebbistatin blocks myosin II in an actin-detached state makes the compound useful both in muscle physiology and in exploring the cellular function of cytoplasmic myosin II isoforms, whereas the stabilization of a specific myosin intermediate confers a great potential in structural studies.
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            Folding-unfolding transitions in single titin molecules characterized with laser tweezers.

            Titin, a giant filamentous polypeptide, is believed to play a fundamental role in maintaining sarcomeric structural integrity and developing what is known as passive force in muscle. Measurements of the force required to stretch a single molecule revealed that titin behaves as a highly nonlinear entropic spring. The molecule unfolds in a high-force transition beginning at 20 to 30 piconewtons and refolds in a low-force transition at approximately 2.5 piconewtons. A fraction of the molecule (5 to 40 percent) remains permanently unfolded, behaving as a wormlike chain with a persistence length (a measure of the chain's bending rigidity) of 20 angstroms. Force hysteresis arises from a difference between the unfolding and refolding kinetics of the molecule relative to the stretch and release rates in the experiments, respectively. Scaling the molecular data up to sarcomeric dimensions reproduced many features of the passive force versus extension curve of muscle fibers.
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              Direct observation of base-pair stepping by RNA polymerase.

              During transcription, RNA polymerase (RNAP) moves processively along a DNA template, creating a complementary RNA. Here we present the development of an ultra-stable optical trapping system with ångström-level resolution, which we used to monitor transcriptional elongation by single molecules of Escherichia coli RNAP. Records showed discrete steps averaging 3.7 +/- 0.6 A, a distance equivalent to the mean rise per base found in B-DNA. By combining our results with quantitative gel analysis, we conclude that RNAP advances along DNA by a single base pair per nucleotide addition to the nascent RNA. We also determined the force-velocity relationship for transcription at both saturating and sub-saturating nucleotide concentrations; fits to these data returned a characteristic distance parameter equivalent to one base pair. Global fits were inconsistent with a model for movement incorporating a power stroke tightly coupled to pyrophosphate release, but consistent with a brownian ratchet model incorporating a secondary NTP binding site.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                25 June 2018
                July 2018
                : 19
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department Chemistry Biomedical Sciences, Linnaeus University, SE-39182 Kalmar, Sweden; marko.usaj@ 123456lnu.se (M.U.); luisa.moretto@ 123456lnu.se (L.M.)
                [2 ]Department Kinesiology and Physical Education, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T5, Canada
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: alf.mansson@ 123456lnu.se (A.M.); dilson.rassier@ 123456mcgill.ca (D.E.R.); Tel.: +46-708-866-243 (A.M.)
                Article
                ijms-19-01863
                10.3390/ijms19071863
                6073448
                29941816
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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