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      Sequence-based detection and typing procedures for Burkholderia mallei: Assessment and prospects


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          Although glanders has been eradicated in most of the developed world, the disease still persists in various countries such as Brazil, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Iran, Bahrain, UAE and Turkey. It is one of the notifiable diseases listed by the World Organization for Animal Health. Occurrence of glanders imposes restriction on equestrian events and restricts equine movement, thus causing economic losses to equine industry. The genetic diversity and global distribution of the causing agent, Burkholderia ( B.) mallei, have not been assessed in detail and are complicated by the high clonality of this organism. Among the identification and typing methods, PCR-based methods for distinguishing B. mallei from its close relative B. pseudomallei as well as genotyping using tandem repeat regions (MLVA) are established. The advent and continuous advancement of the sequencing techniques and the reconstruction of closed genomes enable the development of genome guided epidemiological tools. For achieving a higher genomic resolution, genotyping methods based on whole genome sequencing data can be employed, like genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms. One of the limitations in obtaining complete genomic sequences for further molecular characterization of B. mallei is its high GC content. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the widely used detection and typing methods for B. mallei and illustrate gaps that still require development. The genomic features of Burkholderia, their high homology and clonality will be first described from a comparative genomics perspective. Then, the commonly used molecular detection (PCR systems) and typing systems (e.g., multilocus sequence typing, variable number of tandem repeat analysis) will be presented and put in perspective with recently developed genomic methods. Also, the increasing availability of B. mallei genomic sequences and evolution of the sequencing methods offers exciting prospects for further refinement of B. mallei typing, that could overcome the difficulties presently encountered with this particular bacterium.

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          Shifting the genomic gold standard for the prokaryotic species definition.

          DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) has been used for nearly 50 years as the gold standard for prokaryotic species circumscriptions at the genomic level. It has been the only taxonomic method that offered a numerical and relatively stable species boundary, and its use has had a paramount influence on how the current classification has been constructed. However, now, in the era of genomics, DDH appears to be an outdated method for classification that needs to be substituted. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) between two genomes seems the most promising method since it mirrors DDH closely. Here we examine the work package JSpecies as a user-friendly, biologist-oriented interface to calculate ANI and the correlation of the tetranucleotide signatures between pairwise genomic comparisons. The results agreed with the use of ANI to substitute DDH, with a narrowed boundary that could be set at approximately 95-96%. In addition, the JSpecies package implemented the tetranucleotide signature correlation index, an alignment-free parameter that generally correlates with ANI and that can be of help in deciding when a given pair of organisms should be classified in the same species. Moreover, for taxonomic purposes, the analyses can be produced by simply randomly sequencing at least 20% of the genome of the query strains rather than obtaining their full sequence.
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            Coming of age: ten years of next-generation sequencing technologies.

            Since the completion of the human genome project in 2003, extraordinary progress has been made in genome sequencing technologies, which has led to a decreased cost per megabase and an increase in the number and diversity of sequenced genomes. An astonishing complexity of genome architecture has been revealed, bringing these sequencing technologies to even greater advancements. Some approaches maximize the number of bases sequenced in the least amount of time, generating a wealth of data that can be used to understand increasingly complex phenotypes. Alternatively, other approaches now aim to sequence longer contiguous pieces of DNA, which are essential for resolving structurally complex regions. These and other strategies are providing researchers and clinicians a variety of tools to probe genomes in greater depth, leading to an enhanced understanding of how genome sequence variants underlie phenotype and disease.
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              Towards complete and error-free genome assemblies of all vertebrate species

              High-quality and complete reference genome assemblies are fundamental for the application of genomics to biology, disease, and biodiversity conservation. However, such assemblies are available for only a few non-microbial species 1 – 4 . To address this issue, the international Genome 10K (G10K) consortium 5 , 6 has worked over a five-year period to evaluate and develop cost-effective methods for assembling highly accurate and nearly complete reference genomes. Here we present lessons learned from generating assemblies for 16 species that represent six major vertebrate lineages. We confirm that long-read sequencing technologies are essential for maximizing genome quality, and that unresolved complex repeats and haplotype heterozygosity are major sources of assembly error when not handled correctly. Our assemblies correct substantial errors, add missing sequence in some of the best historical reference genomes, and reveal biological discoveries. These include the identification of many false gene duplications, increases in gene sizes, chromosome rearrangements that are specific to lineages, a repeated independent chromosome breakpoint in bat genomes, and a canonical GC-rich pattern in protein-coding genes and their regulatory regions. Adopting these lessons, we have embarked on the Vertebrate Genomes Project (VGP), an international effort to generate high-quality, complete reference genomes for all of the roughly 70,000 extant vertebrate species and to help to enable a new era of discovery across the life sciences. The Vertebrate Genome Project has used an optimized pipeline to generate high-quality genome assemblies for sixteen species (representing all major vertebrate classes), which have led to new biological insights.

                Author and article information

                Front Vet Sci
                Front Vet Sci
                Front. Vet. Sci.
                Frontiers in Veterinary Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                14 November 2022
                : 9
                : 1056996
                [1] 1Institute of Bacterial Infections and Zoonoses, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut – Federal Research Institute for Animal Health , Jena, Germany
                [2] 2National Research Centre on Equines (ICAR) , Hisar, India
                [3] 3Bacterial Zoonosis Unit, Animal Health Laboratory, French Food Agency (Anses) , Maisons-Alfort, France
                Author notes

                Edited by: Jesus Hernandez, Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT), Mexico

                Reviewed by: Roberto Rosales-Reyes, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico; Tara G. McDaneld, Agricultural Research Service (USDA), United States

                *Correspondence: Hanka Brangsch Hanka.Brangsch@ 123456fli.de

                This article was submitted to Veterinary Infectious Diseases, a section of the journal Frontiers in Veterinary Science

                Copyright © 2022 Brangsch, Singha, Laroucau and Elschner.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 29 September 2022
                : 26 October 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 82, Pages: 14, Words: 10045
                Veterinary Science

                burkholderia mallei,detection,pcr,mlva,snp,cgmlst,genome sequencing,genotyping


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