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      Laparoscopic versus open hemihepatectomy: comprehensive comparison of complications and costs at 90 days using a propensity method

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          Abstract

          Laparoscopic hemihepatectomy (LHH) may offer advantages over open hemihepatectomy (OHH) in blood loss, recovery, and hospital stay. The aim of this study is to evaluate our recent experience performing hemihepatectomy and compare complications and costs up to 90 days following laparoscopic versus open procedures. Retrospective evaluation of patients undergoing hemihepatectomy at our center 01/2010–12/2018 was performed. Patient, tumor, and surgical characteristics; 90-day complications; and costs were analyzed. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) was used to balance covariates. A total of 141 hemihepatectomies were included: 96 OHH and 45 LHH. While operative times were longer for LHH, blood loss and transfusions were less. At 90 days, there were similar rates of liver-specific and surgical complications but fewer medical complications following LHH. Medical complications that arose with greater frequency following OHH were primarily pulmonary complications and urinary and central venous catheter infections. Complications at 90 days were lower following LHH (Clavien–Dindo grade ≥ III OHH 23%, LHH 11%, p = 0.130; Comprehensive Complication Index OHH 20.0 ± 16.1, LHH 10.9 ± 14.2, p = 0.001). While operating costs were higher, costs for hospital stay and readmissions were lower with LHH. Patients undergoing LHH experience a significant reduction in postoperative medical complications and costs, resulting in 90-day cost equity compared with OHH.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Classification of surgical complications: a new proposal with evaluation in a cohort of 6336 patients and results of a survey.

          Although quality assessment is gaining increasing attention, there is still no consensus on how to define and grade postoperative complications. This shortcoming hampers comparison of outcome data among different centers and therapies and over time. A classification of complications published by one of the authors in 1992 was critically re-evaluated and modified to increase its accuracy and its acceptability in the surgical community. Modifications mainly focused on the manner of reporting life-threatening and permanently disabling complications. The new grading system still mostly relies on the therapy used to treat the complication. The classification was tested in a cohort of 6336 patients who underwent elective general surgery at our institution. The reproducibility and personal judgment of the classification were evaluated through an international survey with 2 questionnaires sent to 10 surgical centers worldwide. The new ranking system significantly correlated with complexity of surgery (P < 0.0001) as well as with the length of the hospital stay (P < 0.0001). A total of 144 surgeons from 10 different centers around the world and at different levels of training returned the survey. Ninety percent of the case presentations were correctly graded. The classification was considered to be simple (92% of the respondents), reproducible (91%), logical (92%), useful (90%), and comprehensive (89%). The answers of both questionnaires were not dependent on the origin of the reply and the level of training of the surgeons. The new complication classification appears reliable and may represent a compelling tool for quality assessment in surgery in all parts of the world.
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            Validation of a combined comorbidity index

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              Posthepatectomy liver failure: a definition and grading by the International Study Group of Liver Surgery (ISGLS).

              Posthepatectomy liver failure is a feared complication after hepatic resection and a major cause of perioperative mortality. There is currently no standardized definition of posthepatectomy liver failure that allows valid comparison of results from different studies and institutions. The aim of the current article was to propose a definition and grading of severity of posthepatectomy liver failure. A literature search on posthepatectomy liver failure after hepatic resection was conducted. Based on the normal course of biochemical liver function tests after hepatic resection, a simple and easily applicable definition of posthepatectomy liver failure was developed by the International Study Group of Liver Surgery. Furthermore, a grading of severity is proposed based on the impact on patients' clinical management. No uniform definition of posthepatectomy liver failure has been established in the literature addressing hepatic surgery. Considering the normal postoperative course of serum bilirubin concentration and International Normalized Ratio, we propose defining posthepatectomy liver failure as the impaired ability of the liver to maintain its synthetic, excretory, and detoxifying functions, which are characterized by an increased international normalized ratio and concomitant hyperbilirubinemia (according to the normal limits of the local laboratory) on or after postoperative day 5. The severity of posthepatectomy liver failure should be graded based on its impact on clinical management. Grade A posthepatectomy liver failure requires no change of the patient's clinical management. The clinical management of patients with grade B posthepatectomy liver failure deviates from the regular course but does not require invasive therapy. The need for invasive treatment defines grade C posthepatectomy liver failure. The current definition of posthepatectomy liver failure is simple and easily applicable in clinical routine. This definition can be used in future studies to allow objective and accurate comparisons of operative interventions in the field of hepatic surgery. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                cfondevila@ub.edu
                Journal
                Updates Surg
                Updates Surg
                Updates in Surgery
                Springer International Publishing (Cham )
                2038-131X
                2038-3312
                30 July 2020
                30 July 2020
                2020
                : 72
                : 4
                : 1041-1051
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery and Transplantation, General and Digestive Surgery Service, Hospital Clínic, IDIBAPS, CIBERehd, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
                [2 ]GRID grid.7080.f, Medical Statistics Core Facility, Faculty of Medicine, , IDIBAPS, Hospital Clínic Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, and Biostatistics Unit, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, ; Barcelona, Spain
                [3 ]GRID grid.410458.c, ISNI 0000 0000 9635 9413, Department of General and Digestive Surgery, , Hospital Clínic, University of Barcelona, ; C/ Villarroel 170, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
                Article
                854
                10.1007/s13304-020-00854-y
                7680740
                32734578
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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                Original Article
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                © Italian Society of Surgery (SIC) 2020

                Surgery

                hemihepatectomy, laparoscopy, major liver resection, comprehensive complication index

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