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      Challenges For Percutaneous Left Atrial Appendage Closure: Imaging And Residual Flow

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          Abstract

          We have read with great interest the paper entitled ‘First results of the Brazilian Registry of Percutaneous Left Atrial Appendage Closure’ by Guérios et al 1 . is a very important study. We have some suggestions about this trial. Firstly, two-dimensional transeosophageal echocardiography (2D-TEE) can evaluate the morphology of left atrial appendage in multiple views. But real-time three-dimensional transeosophageal echocardiography (3D-TEE) provides more detailed images of the left atrial appendage (LAA) anatomy than 2D-TEE. 2 A competent physician can accurately evaluate the LAA depth and landing zone. Moreover LAA closure depends on an accurate determination of anatomical structure. Therefore the 3D-TEE may show advantantages in relation to 2D-TEE in transcathater LAA closure. Secondly, we wonder which indicators were used the device selection. For example, Lefort occluder devices are appropriate for single-lobe appendage, but LAmbre occluder can be used in LAA depth < 21 mm. 2 Lastly we would like to know about the two patients whose devices showed thrombus formation, as incomplete LAA closure may be associated with an increased risk of thrombus formation and then the second device may be inserted. 3 Did the authors do further investigation and intervention in these patients?

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          Incomplete left atrial appendage occlusion and thrombus formation after Watchman implantation treated with anticoagulation followed by further transcatheter closure with a second-generation Amplatzer Cardiac Plug (Amulet device).

          We report a case of incomplete left atrial appendage (LAA) closure after Watchman device (Atritech, Boston Scientific, Natrick, MA) implantation which subsequently developed a thrombus 3 years after the initial procedure. The thrombus resolved after a short period of anticoagulation with warfarin, and the LAA was successfully occluded with a second-generation Amplatzer Cardiac Plug (Amulet device, AGA, St Jude Medical, Minneapolis, MN). Incomplete LAA closure may be associated with increased risk of thrombus formation and further closure with a second device after a course of anticoagulation may be a reasonable and feasible strategy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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            First results of the Brazilian Registry of Percutaneous Left Atrial Appendage Closure

            Background Left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) is an effective alternative to oral anticoagulation (OA) for the prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Objective To present the immediate results and late outcomes of patients submitted to LAAC and included in the Brazilian Registry of Percutaneous Left Atrial Appendage Closure. Methods 91 patients with NVAF, high stroke risk (CHA2DS2VASc score = 4.5 ± 1.5) and restrictions to OAC (HAS-BLED score = 3.6 ± 1.0) underwent 92 LAAC procedures using either the Amplatzer cardiac plug or the Watchman device in 11 centers in Brazil, between late 2010 and mid 2016. Results Ninety-six devices were used (1.04 device/procedure, including an additional non-dedicated device), with a procedural success rate of 97.8%. Associated procedures were performed in 8.7% of the patients. Complete LAAC was obtained in 93.3% of the successful cases. In cases of incomplete closure, no residual leak was larger than 2.5 mm. One patient needed simultaneous implantation of 2 devices. There were 7 periprocedural major (5 pericardial effusions requiring pericardiocentesis, 1 non-dedicated device embolization and 1 coronary air embolism without sequelae) and 4 minor complications. After 128.6 patient-years of follow-up there were 3 deaths unrelated to the procedure, 2 major bleedings (one of them in a patient with an unsuccessful LAAC), thrombus formation over the device in 2 cases (both resolved after resuming OAC for 3 months) and 2 strokes (2.2%). Conclusions In this multicenter, real world registry, that included patients with NVAF and high thromboembolic and bleeding risks, LAAC effectively prevented stroke and bleeding when compared to the expected rates based on CHA2DS2VASc and HASBLED scores for this population. Complications rate of the procedure was acceptable considering the beginning of the learning curve of most of the involved operators.
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              Roles of real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in peri-operation of transcatheter left atrial appendage closure

              Abstract Left atrial appendage (LAA) closure is a new treatment option for the prevention of stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). Conventional 2-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (2D TEE) has some limitations in the imaging assessment of LAA closure. Real-time 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT-3D TEE) allows for detailed morphologic assessment of the LAA. In this study, we aim to determine the clinical values of RT-3D TEE in the periprocedure of LAA closure. Thirty-eight persistent or paroxysmal AF patients with indications for LAA closure were enrolled in this study. RT-3D TEE full volume data of the LAA were recorded before operation to evaluate the anatomic feature, the landing zone dimension, and the depth of the LAA. On this basis, selection of LAA closure device was carried out. During the procedure, RT-3D TEE was applied to guide the interatrial septal puncture, device operation, and evaluate the occlusion effects. The patients were follow-up 1 month and 3 months postclosure. Twenty-eight (73.7%) patients with AF received placement of LAA occlusion device under RT-3D TEE. Eleven cases with single-lobe LAAs were identified using RT-3D TEE, among which 4 showed limited depth. Seventeen cases showed bilobed or multilobed LAA. Seven cases received LAA closure using Lefort and 21 using LAmbre based on the 3D TEE and radiography. The landing zone dimension of the LAA measured by RT-3D TEE Flexi Slice mode was better correlated with the device size used for occlusion (r = 0.90) than 2D TEE (r = 0.88). The interatial septal puncture, the exchange of the sheath, as well as the release of the device were executed under the guidance of RT-3D TEE during the procedure. The average number of closure devices utilized for optimal plugging was (1.11 ± 0.31). There were no clinically unacceptable residual shunts, pericardial effusion, or tamponade right after occlusion. All the patients had the device well-seated and no evidence of closure related complications in the follow-up. Assessment of LAA morphology by RT-3D TEE contributes to the decision of device selection for the closure. 3D TEE is a reliable imaging modality to guide device operation and assess on-site closure.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Arq Bras Cardiol
                Arq. Bras. Cardiol
                abc
                Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
                Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia - SBC
                0066-782X
                1678-4170
                July 2018
                July 2018
                : 111
                : 1
                : 117
                Affiliations
                Faculty of Medicine, Department of Cardiology Mugla Sitki Koçman Üniversity Tip Fakültesi Orhaniye Mah. Haluk, Mugla – Turkey
                Author notes
                Mailing Addresss: Tarik Yildirim, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Cardiology – Turkey. E-mail: kdrtarik@ 123456gmail.com , kdrtarik@ 123456hotmail.com
                Article
                10.5935/abc.20180135
                6078370
                30110056

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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