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      Survivin promoter-regulated oncolytic adenovirus with Hsp70 gene exerts effective antitumor efficacy in gastric cancer immunotherapy

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          Abstract

          Gene therapy is a promising adjuvant therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment. To overcome the limitations of current gene therapy, such as poor transfection efficiency of vectors, low levels of transgene expression and lack of tumor targeting, the Survivin promoter was used to regulate the selective replication of oncolytic adenovirus in tumor cells, and the heat shock protein 70 ( Hsp70) gene was loaded as the anticancer transgene to generate an AdSurp-Hsp70 viral therapy system. The efficacy of this targeted immunotherapy was examined in gastric cancer. The experiments showed that the oncolytic adenovirus can selectively replicate in and lyse the Survivin-positive gastric cancer cells, without significant toxicity to normal cells. AdSurp-Hsp70 reduced viability of cancer cells and inhibited tumor growth of gastric cancer xenografts in immuno-deficient and immuno-reconstruction mouse models. AdSurp-Hsp70 produced dual antitumor effects due to viral replication and high Hsp70 expression. This therapeutic system used the Survivin promoter-regulated oncolytic adenovirus vector to mediate targeted expression of the Hsp70 gene and ensure safety and efficacy for subsequent gene therapy programs against a variety of cancers.

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          Most cited references 30

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          The HSP70 family and cancer.

           Kellie Murphy (2013)
          The HSP70 family of heat shock proteins consists of molecular chaperones of approximately 70kDa in size that serve critical roles in protein homeostasis. These adenosine triphosphatases unfold misfolded or denatured proteins and can keep these proteins in an unfolded, folding-competent state. They also protect nascently translating proteins, promote the cellular or organellar transport of proteins, reduce proteotoxic protein aggregates and serve general housekeeping roles in maintaining protein homeostasis. The HSP70 family is the most conserved in evolution, and all eukaryotes contain multiple members. Some members of this family serve specific organellar- or tissue-specific functions; however, in many cases, these members can function redundantly. Overall, the HSP70 family of proteins can be thought of as a potent buffering system for cellular stress, either from extrinsic (physiological, viral and environmental) or intrinsic (replicative or oncogenic) stimuli. As such, this family serves a critical survival function in the cell. Not surprisingly, cancer cells rely heavily on this buffering system for survival. The overwhelming majority of human tumors overexpress HSP70 family members, and expression of these proteins is typically a marker for poor prognosis. With the proof of principle that inhibitors of the HSP90 chaperone have emerged as important anticancer agents, intense focus has now been placed on the potential for HSP70 inhibitors to assume a role as a significant chemotherapeutic avenue. In this review, the history, regulation, mechanism of action and role in cancer of the HSP70 family are reviewed. Additionally, the promise of pharmacologically targeting this protein for cancer therapy is addressed.
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            Intracellular and extracellular functions of heat shock proteins: repercussions in cancer therapy.

            Stress or heat shock proteins (HSPs) are the most conserved proteins present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Their expression is induced in response to a wide variety of physiological and environmental insults. These proteins play an essential role as molecular chaperones by assisting the correct folding of nascent and stress-accumulated misfolded proteins, and preventing their aggregation. HSPs have a dual function depending on their intracellular or extracellular location. Intracellular HSPs have a protective function. They allow the cells to survive lethal conditions. Various mechanisms have been proposed to account for the cytoprotective functions of HSPs. Several HSPs have also been demonstrated to directly interact with various components of the tightly regulated programmed cell death machinery, upstream and downstream of the mitochondrial events. On the other hand, extracellular located or membrane-bound HSPs mediate immunological functions. They can elicit an immune response modulated either by the adaptive or innate immune system. This review will focus on HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90. We will discuss the dual role of these HSPs, protective vs. immunogenic properties, making a special emphasis in their utility as targets in cancer therapy.
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              Interaction of heat shock proteins with peptides and antigen presenting cells: chaperoning of the innate and adaptive immune responses.

              Heat shock proteins are abundant soluble intracellular proteins, present in all cells. Members of the heat shock protein family bind peptides including antigenic peptides generated within cells. Heat shock proteins also interact with antigen presenting cells through CD91 and other receptors, eliciting a cascade of events including re-presentation of heat shock protein-chaperoned peptides by MHC, translocation of NF kappa B into the nuclei and maturation of dendritic cells. These consequences point to a key role of heat shock proteins in fundamental immunological phenomena such as activation of antigen presenting cells, indirect presentation (or cross-priming), and chaperoning of peptides during antigen presentation. Heat shock proteins appear to have been involved in innate immune responses since the emergence of phagocytes in early multicellular organisms and to have been commandeered for adaptive immune responses with the advent of specificity. These properties of heat shock proteins also allow them to be used for immunotherapy of cancers and infections in novel ways.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Oncotarget
                Oncotarget
                ImpactJ
                Oncotarget
                Impact Journals LLC
                1949-2553
                January 2014
                28 December 2013
                : 5
                : 1
                : 150-160
                Affiliations
                1 Department of Internal Medicine, No. 117 Hospital of Chinese PLA, Hangzhou 310004, China.
                2 Department of Molecular Oncology, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgical Hospital & National Center of Liver Cancer, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200438, China.
                3 Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area, Fuzhou 350025, China.
                4 Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China.
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Changqing Su, suchangqing@ 123456gmail.com
                Weiguo Wang, Weidan Ji and Huanzhang Hu contributed equally to this work.
                Article
                3960197
                24473833
                Copyright: © 2014 Wang et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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                Research Paper

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