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      El riego parcial de la raíz incrementa la productividad del agua en manzano en un ambiente semi-árido Translated title: Partial rootzone drying improves water productivity of apples in a semi-arid enviroment

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          Abstract

          La sobre explotación de los acuíferos en el centro y norte de México requiere estrategias eficientes en la aplicación, ahorro y conservación del agua (oro azul) para la sustentabilidad de los cultivos hortícolas como el manzano. Así, el objetivo de este estudio fue comparar el riego comercial (RC) con el riego parcial de la raíz (RPR) en relación al rendimiento y calidad del fruto a la cosecha. Se hizo énfasis en la productividad del agua (PA), en las relaciones hídricas, nutrición del árbol y en el comportamiento del fruto en postcosecha. Los tratamientos fueron: RC como testigo y el RPR. La PA se mejoró significativamente por el uso del RPR y resultó en un ahorro de 2.9 megalitros de agua de riego por hectárea. El rendimiento, componentes del rendimiento, crecimiento vegetativo, tamaño y calidad de la fruta a la cosecha no fueron modificados por los tratamientos de riego. La madera podada fue menor en árboles con RPR. El potencial hídrico, conductancia estomática y transpiración fueron menores en árboles con RPR que en árboles con RC. Excepto por calcio y boro, la concentración del resto de los nutrimentos fue similar entre tratamientos. Después de 18 días en almacenamiento, la calidad de la fruta fue igual entre tratamientos, pero la pérdida de peso de la fruta tendió a incrementarse en la fruta con RPR. En conclusión, el RPR es una estrategia de ahorro de agua de riego para la producción sustentable en manzano, principalmente para regiones donde el recurso hídrico es limitado.

          Translated abstract

          The aquifer over exploitation in the central and northern part of Mexico requires efficient strategies in the application, savings, and conservation of water (blue gold) for the sustainability of horticultural crops like apple. So, the objective of this study was to compare the commercial irrigation (CI) with partial rootzone drying (PRD) in relation to the yield and fruit quality at harvest, and water productivity (WP). Emphasis was placed on water productivity, water relationships, tree nutrition, and postharvest performance of fruit. The treatments were: CI as control and PRD. Water productivity was significantly improved by the use of PRD and resulted in a water savings of 2.9 megalitres of water per hectare. Yield, yield components, vegetative growth, fruit size, and fruit quality were not modified by the irrigation treatments. Pruning weight was the lowest in PRD trees. Tree water status, stomatal conductance, and transpiration were lower in PRD trees than in RC trees. Except for calcium and boron, the concentration of the remainder nutrients was similar between treatments. After 18-day in storage, fruit quality was the same between treatments, but fruit water loss tended to increase in PRD fruit. In conclusion, PRD is a water-saving irrigation strategy for the sustainable apple production, mainly for areas where water resource is limited.

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          Irrigation management under water scarcity

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            Hormonal changes induced by partial rootzone drying of irrigated grapevine.

            Partial rootzone drying (PRD) is a new irrigation technique which improves the water use efficiency (by up to 50%) of wine grape production without significant crop reduction. The technique was developed on the basis of knowledge of the mechanisms controlling transpiration and requires that approximately half of the root system is always maintained in a dry or drying state while the remainder of the root system is irrigated. The wetted and dried sides of the root system are alternated on a 10-14 d cycle. Abscisic acid (ABA) concentration in the drying roots increases 10-fold, but ABA concentration in leaves of grapevines under PRD only increased by 60% compared with a fully irrigated control. Stomatal conductance of vines under PRD irrigation was significantly reduced when compared with vines receiving water to the entire root system. Grapevines from which water was withheld from the entire root system, on the other hand, show a similar reduction in stomatal conductance, but leaf ABA increased 5-fold compared with the fully irrigated control. PRD results in increased xylem sap ABA concentration and increased xylem sap pH, both of which are likely to result in a reduction in stomatal conductance. In addition, there was a reduction in zeatin and zeatin-riboside concentrations in roots, shoot tips and buds of 60, 50 and 70%, respectively, and this may contribute to the reduction in shoot growth and intensified apical dominance of vines under PRD irrigation. There is a nocturnal net flux of water from wetter roots to the roots in dry soil and this may assist in the distribution of chemical signals necessary to sustain the PRD effect. It was concluded that a major effect of PRD is the production of chemical signals in drying roots that are transported to the leaves where they bring about a reduction in stomatal conductance.
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              Increasing crop productivity when water is scarce—from breeding to field management

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                rcsh
                Revista Chapingo. Serie horticultura
                Rev. Chapingo Ser.Hortic
                Universidad Autónoma Chapingo (Chapingo, Estado de México, Mexico )
                1027-152X
                2007-4034
                August 2009
                : 15
                : 2
                : 111-118
                Affiliations
                [01] Zacatecas orgnameInstituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias. Campo Experimental Zacatecas México jzegbe@ 123456zacatecas.inifap.gob.mx
                [02] Zacatecas orgnameInstituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias. Campo Experimental Zacatecas México
                Article
                S1027-152X2009000200002 S1027-152X(09)01500200002
                a0720584-ccef-4347-902c-0c8bd8baaefd

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 11 March 2009
                : 23 June 2009
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 31, Pages: 8
                Product

                SciELO Mexico


                postharvest,preharvest,nutrition,water relations,reduced irrigation,Malus xsylvestris (L.) Mill. var domestica (Borkh.) Mansf,postcosecha,precosecha,nutrición,relaciones hídricas,riego reducido

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