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      No limit in interspecific hybridization in schistosomes: observation from a case report Translated title: Pas de limites dans l’hybridation entre schistosomes : réflexions à propos d’un cas clinique

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          Schistosomiasis is one of the most significant parasitic diseases of humans. The hybridization of closely related Schistosoma species has already been documented. However, hybridization between phylogenetically distant species is unusual. In the present study, we characterized the causative agent of schistosomiasis in a 14-year-old patient with hematuria from Côte d’Ivoire, using morphological and molecular approaches. A 24-hour parasitological examination of urine showed the presence of numerous eggs (150 μm long × 62 μm wide) with a lateral spine (25 μm), identified morphologically as Schistosoma mansoni. Examination of stools performed on the same day found no parasites. The urine and stool examinations of the patient’s family members performed two weeks later showed neither parasites nor hematuria; but in contrast, many S. mansoni eggs were found again in the patient’s urine, but never in his stools. Conventional PCRs were performed, using two primer pairs targeting 28S-rDNA and COI mtDNA. The 28S-rDNA sequence of these eggs, compared with two reference sequences from GenBank demonstrated a hybrid with 25 double peaks, indicating clearly hybrid positions (5.37%) between S. mansoni and S. haematobium. Similarly, we identified a unique S. mansoni COI sequence for the two eggs, with 99.1% homology with the S. mansoni reference sequence. Consequently, this case was the result of hybridization between an S. haematobium male and an S. mansoni female. This should be taken into consideration to explore the elimination of ectopic schistosome eggs in the future.

          Translated abstract

          La schistosomiase est l’une des maladies parasitaires les plus importantes chez l’Homme. L’hybridation d’espèces de Schistosoma très apparentées a déjà été documentée. Cependant, l’hybridation entre espèces phylogénétiquement éloignées est inhabituelle. Dans le cas que nous rapportons, nous avons caractérisé l’agent responsable d’une bilharziose urinaire chez un patient de 14 ans originaire de Côte d’Ivoire à l’aide d’approches morphologiques et moléculaires. Un examen parasitologique effectué sur des urines de 24 heures a révélé la présence de nombreux œufs (150 μm de long × 62 μm de large) à éperon latéral (25 μm), identifiés morphologiquement comme appartenant à l’espèce Schistosoma mansoni. L’examen parasitologique des selles effectué le même jour n’a révélé aucun parasite. Les examens d’urines et de selles des membres de sa famille effectués deux semaines plus tard ne montraient aucun parasite ni hématurie, mais en revanche, de nombreux œufs de S. mansoni ont été retrouvés dans l’urine du patient, mais jamais dans ses selles. Les PCR conventionnelles ont été réalisées à l’aide de paires d’amorces ciblant l’ADNr 28S et l’ADNmt (COI). L’analyse de la séquence de l’ADNr 28S de ces œufs, comparée à deux séquences de référence de GenBank a montré un hybride avec 25 doubles pics indiquant des positions clairement hybrides (5,37 %) entre S. mansoni et S. haematobium. De même, nous avons identifié une séquence COI unique pour les deux œufs, présentant une homologie de 99,1 % avec la séquence de référence de S. mansoni. Par conséquent, ce cas est le résultat d’une hybridation entre un mâle S. haematobium et une femelle S. mansoni. Ce phénomène devrait être pris en compte pour explorer les éliminations atypiques d’œufs de bilharzies à l’avenir.

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          Most cited references 34

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            Whole-genome sequence of Schistosoma haematobium.

            Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by blood flukes (genus Schistosoma; schistosomes) and affecting 200 million people worldwide. No vaccines are available, and treatment relies on one drug, praziquantel. Schistosoma haematobium has come into the spotlight as a major cause of urogenital disease, as an agent linked to bladder cancer and as a predisposing factor for HIV/AIDS. The parasite is transmitted to humans from freshwater snails. Worms dwell in blood vessels and release eggs that become embedded in the bladder wall to elicit chronic immune-mediated disease and induce squamous cell carcinoma. Here we sequenced the 385-Mb genome of S. haematobium using Illumina-based technology at 74-fold coverage and compared it to sequences from related parasites. We included genome annotation based on function, gene ontology, networking and pathway mapping. This genome now provides an unprecedented resource for many fundamental research areas and shows great promise for the design of new disease interventions.
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              Outbreak of urogenital schistosomiasis in Corsica (France): an epidemiological case study.

              Schistosomiasis is a snail-borne parasitic disease endemic in several tropical and subtropical countries. However, in the summer of 2013, an unexpected outbreak of urogenital schistosomiasis occurred in Corsica, with more than 120 local people or tourists infected. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the epidemiology of urogenital schistosomiasis in Corsica, aiming to elucidate the origin of the outbreak.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                01 March 2019
                : 26
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2019/01 )
                [1 ] EA7510 ESCAPE, USC ANSES “VECPAR”, UFR Pharmacie, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne France
                [2 ] Laboratoire de Parasitologie-Mycologie, Hôpital Maison Blanche Reims France
                [3 ] Département de Parasitologie-Mycologie, Hôpital Avicenne AP-HP Bobigny France
                [4 ] Unité des Virus Emergents (Université Aix-Marseille– IRD 190 – Inserm 1207 – IHU Méditerranée infection) Marseille France
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding authors: jerome.depaquit@ 123456univ-reims.fr
                parasite180149 10.1051/parasite/2019010
                © J. Depaquit et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2019

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 37, Pages: 5
                Research Article


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