To investigate the effect of rapid correction of chronic metabolic acidosis on circulating intact parathyroid hormone (I-PTH) activity by free calcium clamp in chronic renal failure, 18 patients were enrolled in this study. Metabolic acidosis was corrected by continuous bicarbonate infusion while plasma ionized calcium was clamped at the preinfusion level throughout the entire procedure. The plasma pH, bicarbonate, total CO<sub>2</sub>, sodium, serum total calcium and 1,25(OH)<sub>2 </sub>vitamin D<sub>3</sub> levels increased significantly while serum concentrations of I-PTH, alkaline phosphatase and albumin showed significant decreases after bicarbonate infusion. The plasma ionized calcium, potassium, serum magnesium and inorganic phosphorus levels showed no significant difference before and after bicarbonate infusion. These results demonstrate that rapid correction of metabolic acidosis attenuates circulating PTH activity in chronic renal failure and may underline the importance of maintaining normal acid-base homeostasis particularly in the presence of secondary hyperparathyroidism.