A cooperative study was undertaken to identify factors that could be used to predict a favorable outcome after extracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion (shunting) in patients with suspected idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Questionnaires concerning patients with suspected idiopathic NPH were sent to 14 members of the Committee for Scientific Research on Intractable Hydrocephalus, sponsored by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan. After the questionnaires were returned, a retrospective analysis of the responses was undertaken. To be included in the study, patients had to be 65 years of age or older and had to have undergone surgery between October 1995 and October 1998. Clinical measures included degrees of gait disturbance, dementia, and urinary incontinence as evaluated before. 3 months after, and 3 years after shunt placement. Diagnostic tests in various combinations included lumbar puncture in which CSF was withdrawn; intracranial pressure monitoring; measurements of CSF outflow resistance, level of serum alpha-1-antichymotrypsin, cerebral arteriovenous differences of oxygen content, and cerebral blood flow; and computerized tomography cisternography. In this study, 120 patients were identified as having idiopathic NPH and these patients underwent placement of shunts. A ventriculoperitoneal shunt with a programmable valve was used in two thirds of the patients. At the end of 3 months (early assessment), there was an 80% overall rate of clinical improvement, which dropped to 73.3% of the 105 patients who could be evaluated at the end of the 3-year study. Of the three variables, gait disturbance was most improved, both at early and late testing periods. Shunt complications occurred in 22 (18.3%) of the patients. Patients suspected of having idiopathic NPH did not form a homogeneous group, making it difficult to select those who would most likely respond to CSF diversion. Of the diagnostic studies, the most reliable result was improvement in clinical symptoms following a lumbar puncture in which CSF was withdrawn. The use of a programmable valve is recommended because it offers advantages in preventing problems of over- and underdrainage.