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      Effect of Aging on Fatty Streak Formation in a Diet-Induced Mouse Model of Atherosclerosis

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          Abstract

          Age is considered to be a major risk factor for atherosclerosis, but it is unclear whether age has a direct effect on susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Wild-type mice develop fatty streak lesions in the aortic root only when fed a cholate-containing high fat/cholesterol diet. To investigate the influence of age on fatty streak formation, young (10 weeks) and old (53 weeks) female C57BL/6 mice were fed an atherogenic diet containing 15% fat, 1.25% cholesterol and 0.5% sodium cholate for 12 weeks. Atherosclerotic lesions at the aortic root were measured after cryosections were stained with oil red O. Results showed that old mice developed a comparable size of aortic lesions with young counterparts (5,600 ± 2,480 vs. 6,457 ± 1,537 µm<sup>2</sup>/section; p = 0.77), although old mice had significantly higher plasma cholesterol levels than young mice on the atherogenic diet (p < 0.05). Plasma levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 were significantly higher in old mice than in young mice on both chow and Western diets (p < 0.005). These data indicate that age has no direct effect on atherosclerosis susceptibility although it is accompanied by elevations in plasma cholesterol and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 levels in C57BL/6 mice. Thus, increased cardiovascular events with age are probably related to a progressive increase in plaque size rather than to an increase in atherosclerosis susceptibility.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Comparing rat's to human's age: how old is my rat in people years?

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            Quantitative assessment of atherosclerotic lesions in mice.

            The well-defined genetic systems of the mouse are proving useful in experimental studies of atherosclerosis. Inbred mouse strains differ in atherosclerosis susceptibility, and several variants of apolipoproteins have been identified and mapped. This report explores the location and timing of lesion formation in the mouse in an effort to provide a basis for quantitatively comparing groups of mice. After 14 weeks on an atherogenic diet containing 1.25% cholesterol, 15% fat, and 0.5% cholic acid, C57BL/6J female mice had aortic lesions at each of the intercostal arteries, at the junction of the aorta to the heart, and in scattered areas covering 1.1% +/- 0.5 (SD) of the aortic surface. After 9 months on the atherogenic diet, those lesions near the heart and intercostal arteries were extensive, 8% +/- 3 (SD) of the remainder of the aorta was involved in lesions, and lesions were found in the coronary arteries. Results indicated that one suitable location for scoring lesions was in a 300 micron area of the aorta just beyond the aortic sinus. The mean number of lesions/mouse in the selected area after 14 weeks on the atherogenic diet was 1.1 +/- 0.3 (SD). The results were reproducible over 10 separate experiments. The number of lesions per mouse fit a Poisson distribution indicating that the presence of one lesion did not predispose the mouse to acquiring a second lesion. Lesion formation and cholesterol levels did not vary with the season of the year as demonstrated by 9 separate experiments over more than 12 months. Methods of evaluating the number and size of lesions were compared including sizing with a microscope eyepiece grid and computer-assisted planimetry. The resulting data provide reproducible methods of quantitatively comparing lesion formation in various strains or groups of mice, thereby increasing the usefulness of the mouse as an experimental system for atherosclerosis research.
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              Ageing, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and atherosclerosis.

              Ageing is associated with increased inflammatory activity in the blood. The purpose of this study was to investigate if age-related increased plasma levels of TNF-alpha were associated with atherosclerosis in a cohort of 130 humans aged 81 years. The elderly cohort had increased circulating levels of TNF-alpha, C-reactive protein (CRP), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and a low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)/TC ratio compared with a young control group (n = 44). The elderly cohort was divided by tertiles into three subgroups with low, intermediate, and high levels of TNF-alpha, respectively. In the group with high TNF-alpha concentrations a significantly larger proportion had clinical diagnoses of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, weak correlations were found between TNF-alpha on one hand and blood concentrations of triglycerides, leucocytes, CRP and a low HDL/TC ratio on the other which are known as risk factors of atherogenesis and thromboembolic complications. No correlations were found between TNF-alpha, TC, LDL, or the body mass index. In conclusion, the present study shows that in a cohort of 81-year-old humans, high levels of TNF-alpha in the blood were associated with a high prevalence of atherosclerosis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2008
                April 2008
                07 December 2007
                : 45
                : 3
                : 205-210
                Affiliations
                Departments of aRadiology and bCardiovascular Research Center, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va., USA
                Article
                112133 PMC2373261 J Vasc Res 2008;45:205–210
                10.1159/000112133
                PMC2373261
                18063868
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, References: 26, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Research Paper

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