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      Characterizing nicotine exposure among a community sample of non-daily smokers in the United States

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          Abstract

          Background

          Over one-quarter of all smokers in the United States identify as non-daily smokers and this number is projected to rise. Unlike daily smokers who typically maintain consistent levels of nicotine exposure with regular smoking, non-daily smokers have variable patterns of smoking that likely result in high intraindividual variability in nicotine intake. The current study aimed to characterize the weekly intraindividual variability in cotinine and identify smoking-related predictors in nondaily smokers.

          Methods

          An ecological momentary assessment of 60 non-daily smokers ages 24–57 years was conducted over a consecutive 7-day at-home protocol to log each smoking session, assessments of mood and social activity during smoking, and collection of daily saliva samples in a convenience sample from Pennsylvania, USA. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to determine the effects of smoking characteristics on total cotinine exposure measured by pharmacokinetic area under the curve and the range, maximum, and minimum cotinine values during the week controlling for demographic variables.

          Results

          The mean daily cotinine level was 119.2 ng/ml (SD = 168.9) with individual values that ranged from nondetectable to 949.6 ng/ml. Menthol predicted increased total cotinine levels ( P < 0.05). Shorter time to the first cigarette of the day predicted significantly higher minimum ( P < 0.05), maximum ( P < 0.05), and total cotinine values ( P < 0.05) after controlling for covariates. Negative emotions and social interactions with others were also significantly associated with higher cotinine metrics. There was no significant effect of the nicotine metabolite ratio.

          Conclusions

          Our findings highlight the variability in nicotine exposure across days among non-daily smokers and point to the role of smoking context in nicotine exposure. The findings suggest the need to develop better assessment methods to determine health and dependence risk and personalized cessation interventions for this heterogeneous and growing group of smokers.

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          Most cited references 38

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          Research electronic data capture (REDCap)--a metadata-driven methodology and workflow process for providing translational research informatics support.

          Research electronic data capture (REDCap) is a novel workflow methodology and software solution designed for rapid development and deployment of electronic data capture tools to support clinical and translational research. We present: (1) a brief description of the REDCap metadata-driven software toolset; (2) detail concerning the capture and use of study-related metadata from scientific research teams; (3) measures of impact for REDCap; (4) details concerning a consortium network of domestic and international institutions collaborating on the project; and (5) strengths and limitations of the REDCap system. REDCap is currently supporting 286 translational research projects in a growing collaborative network including 27 active partner institutions.
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            Tobacco carcinogens, their biomarkers and tobacco-induced cancer.

            The devastating link between tobacco products and human cancers results from a powerful alliance of two factors - nicotine and carcinogens. Without either one of these, tobacco would be just another commodity, instead of being the single greatest cause of death due to preventable cancer. Nicotine is addictive and toxic, but it is not carcinogenic. This addiction, however, causes people to use tobacco products continually, and these products contain many carcinogens. What are the mechanisms by which this deadly combination leads to 30% of cancer-related deaths in developed countries, and how can carcinogen biomarkers help to reveal these mechanisms?
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              Health effects of light and intermittent smoking: a review.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                ahobkirk@pennstatehealth.psu.edu
                Journal
                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2458
                31 May 2021
                31 May 2021
                2021
                : 21
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.240473.6, ISNI 0000 0004 0543 9901, Department of Public Health Sciences, , Penn State College of Medicine, ; Hershey, PA USA
                [2 ]GRID grid.240473.6, ISNI 0000 0004 0543 9901, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Health, , Penn State College of Medicine, ; Hershey, PA USA
                [3 ]GRID grid.59734.3c, ISNI 0000 0001 0670 2351, Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, , Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, ; New York City, NY USA
                [4 ]GRID grid.240473.6, ISNI 0000 0004 0543 9901, Department of Pharmacology, , Penn State College of Medicine, ; Hershey, PA USA
                [5 ]GRID grid.21107.35, ISNI 0000 0001 2171 9311, Bloomberg School of Public Health, , Johns Hopkins University, ; Baltimore, MD USA
                Article
                11052
                10.1186/s12889-021-11052-9
                8165800
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000009, Foundation for the National Institutes of Health;
                Award ID: R01DA026815
                Award ID: K23DA045081
                Award ID: UL1TR00127
                Award ID: UL1TR002014
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Public health

                non-daily smokers, nicotine exposure, nicotine dependence, cotinine, smoking behavior

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