Background. Peripheral diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is one of the most frequent neurological complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). Despite the large number of pharmacological agents, its treatment is not sufficiently effective, which necessitates the search for new therapies. Objective. The aim of the study was to increase the effectiveness of treatment of neuropathic pain in the patients with diabetic polyneuropathy by incorporating procedures using polarizing polychromatic non-coherent light (Bioptron light therapy) into the complex therapy of this disease. Methods. We examined 67 patients with type 2 diabetes complicated with diabetic polyneuropathy. Patients were divided into two groups: group 1 consisted of 32 patients, who received standard treatment; group 2 comprised 35 patients, who additionally underwent 12 light therapy treatments by means of the Bioptron Physiotherapy Unit. The evaluation of neuropathic pain intensity was performed using a modified questionnaire DN4. Results. A positive clinical effect of treatment was evidenced in both groups in 12 days of treatment. In 3 months, the intensity of complaints was significantly lower (p<0.05) only in the group with additional use of polarizing light. In 6 months, the positive effect of the therapy was leveled in the patients of both groups. Conclusions. The use of the DN4 questionnaire with a modified scale for assessing the parameters of neuropathic pain can optimize its diagnosis. The light therapy procedures together with the standard complex therapy of diabetic polyneuropathy increase the clinical efficacy of neuropathic pain treatment and help to preserve the therapeutic effect within 3 months.