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      Matrix Metalloproteinases: A Review

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          Metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in matrix remodeling.

          The matrix metalloproteinases are a tightly regulated family of enzymes that degrade extracellular matrix and basement membrane components. Recent evidence suggests that these proteases and their specific inhibitors play important roles in normal developmental processes and in pathological conditions. Interestingly, experiments designed to improve our understanding of metalloproteinase regulation have also resulted in new insights into mechanisms by which growth factors and proto-oncogenes may regulate biological processes.
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            A novel metalloproteinase gene specifically expressed in stromal cells of breast carcinomas.

            A gene has been identified that is expressed specifically in stromal cells surrounding invasive breast carcinomas. On the basis of its sequence, the product of this gene, named stromelysin-3, is a new member of the family of metalloproteinase enzymes which degrade the extracellular matrix. The suggestion is that stromelysin-3 is one of the stroma-derived factors that have long been postulated to play an important part in progression of epithelial malignancies.
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              Microelectrode studies on the acid microenvironment beneath adherent macrophages and osteoclasts.

              Osteoclasts and activated macrophages in culture were shown to generate an acidic microenvironment specifically in the attachment zone between the cell and the base of the culture dish. Measurements using pH microelectrodes revealed that osteoclasts, when firmly attached, could achieve a pH fall of about 1 unit min-1 to a limit value of pH 3.0 or less. Activated macrophages produced a slower fall of 0.5-2 pH units h-1 and a limit value of pH 3.6-3.7 was generally detected. The method of activation was relatively unimportant, but where macrophages formed clumps the pH effect was reinforced. Osteoclasts were also examined in situ in osteoporotic bone fragments in rabbit ear chambers, using a combination H+ and Ca2+ double-barrelled electrode. The pH readings reached a lower limit of 4.7 and the calcium concentration rose to a maximum of 40 mM in the erosion sites. In vivo such acid conditions would favor the direct extracellular action of secreted lysosomal proteinases in the degradation of collagen by both cell types.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine
                Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine
                SAGE Publications
                1045-4411
                1544-1113
                January 1993
                January 1993
                : 4
                : 2
                : 197-250
                Article
                10.1177/10454411930040020401
                © 1993

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