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      Prevalence of Microvascular Complications in Type 2 Diabetics Attending a Primary Healthcare Centre in Sudan

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          Abstract

          Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become a global public health challenge. The increasing urbanisation and the significant lifestyle changes have resulted in an unprecedented rise in the rates of type 2 DM and, consequently, its microvascular complications which are the major outcome of the disease. It is the low- and middle-income countries where 80% of the diabetic patients live that face the greatest burden of the disease. Study Objectives: Our primary objective was to estimate the frequency of microvascular complications among patients diagnosed with type 2 DM. Our secondary objective was to investigate the relationship between the microvascular outcomes and the different characteristics and potential variables among patients with type 2 DM. Methodology: An observational descriptive clinic-based cross-sectional survey was conducted to calculate the prevalence of microvascular complications of type 2 DM and the associated risk factors in a lower middle-income country, Sudan. The study was carried out at Shambat Primary Healthcare Clinic during the period between May and June 2018. All patients aged 20 years and above visiting the clinic were included. Patients excluded from selection were those on steroid therapy and those having bilateral eye cataract. A total of 209 patients constituted the sample and were selected through systemic random sampling. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS software version 21. For the continuous variables, the mean was used as a measure of central tendency and the standard deviation as a measure of dispersion. The associations between the microvascular complications and the other variables were analysed using the χ<sup>2</sup> test. The p value was used as a test for statistical significance. Results: The response rate to the survey was 72.6%. The age of the enrolled subjects ranged from 24 to 88 years. Males constituted 61.7% of the study sample and females 38.3%. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 26.92 ± 2.06. Out of 209 patients known to have type 2 DM, 96 (45.9%) developed any of the microvascular complications. Nephropathy was the most frequent with a prevalence of 38.8%, followed by retinopathy and neuropathy with a frequency of 23.9 and 22.5%, respectively. The presence of other co-morbidities, namely hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, chronic kidney disease and dyslipidaemia, was a predictor for the occurrence of the small-vessel conditions. Conclusions: This study is probably the first of its kind to shed light on the magnitude of the microvascular complications of DM in Sudan. The yielded results reveal a significant burden caused by microvascular complications in the country. The concurrent presence of other chronic medical disorders, namely hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, chronic kidney disease and dyslipidaemia, amplifies the risk for the development of microvascular sequelae. The mean BMI of the sample reflects an overweight trend. Facing the high tide of the metabolic syndrome and its sequelae requires a holistic perspective and a multidisciplinary approach. The health authorities and other stakeholders need to prioritise healthcare expenditure and invest more in DM research. A national diabetes registry will serve as a key player in guiding the efforts.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus

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            Diabetic Retinopathy

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              Diabetic Nephropathy and Its Risk Factors in a Society with a Type 2 Diabetes Epidemic: A Saudi National Diabetes Registry-Based Study

              Aims The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and its risk factors have not been studied in a society known to have diabetes epidemic like Saudi Arabia. Using a large data base registry will provide a better understanding and accurate assessment of this chronic complication and its related risk factors. Methodology A total of 54,670 patients with type 2 diabetes aged ≥25 years were selected from the Saudi National Diabetes Registry (SNDR) and analyzed for the presence of diabetic nephropathy. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) criterion was used to identify cases with microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria and end stage renal disease (ESRD) for prevalence estimation and risk factor assessment. Results The overall prevalence of diabetic nephropathy was 10.8%, divided into 1.2% microalbuminuria, 8.1%macroalbuninuria and 1.5% ESRD. Age and diabetes duration as important risk factors have a strong impact on the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy, ranging from 3.7% in patients aged 25–44 years and a duration of >5 years, to 21.8% in patients ≥65 years with a diabetes duration of ≥15 years. Diabetes duration, retinopathy, neuropathy, hypertension, age >45 years, hyperlipidemia, male gender, smoking, and chronologically, poor glycemic control has a significantly high risk for diabetic nephropathy. Conclusion The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy is underestimated as a result of a shortage of screening programs. Risk factors related to diabetic nephropathy in this society are similar to other societies. There is thus an urgent need for screening and prevention programs for diabetic nephropathy among the Saudi population.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                IJD
                10.1159/issn.2073-5944
                International Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism
                S. Karger AG
                1606-7754
                2073-5944
                2019
                October 2020
                28 May 2019
                : 25
                : 3-4
                : 127-133
                Affiliations
                aFaculty of Medicine, University of Medical Sciences and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan
                bFaculty of Medicine, University of Batna, Batna, Algeria
                Author notes
                *Mustafa Hussein, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medical Sciences and Technology, Obeid Khatim Street, Khartoum, PO Box 12810 (Sudan), E-Mail mustafa-hussein@hotmail.com
                Article
                500914 Int J Diabetes Metab 2019;25:127–133
                10.1159/000500914
                © 2019 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 3, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Case Challenge and Education – Research Article

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