Blog
About

19
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      The varieties of contemplative experience: A mixed-methods study of meditation-related challenges in Western Buddhists

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Buddhist-derived meditation practices are currently being employed as a popular form of health promotion. While meditation programs draw inspiration from Buddhist textual sources for the benefits of meditation, these sources also acknowledge a wide range of other effects beyond health-related outcomes. The Varieties of Contemplative Experience study investigates meditation-related experiences that are typically underreported, particularly experiences that are described as challenging, difficult, distressing, functionally impairing, and/or requiring additional support. A mixed-methods approach featured qualitative interviews with Western Buddhist meditation practitioners and experts in Theravāda, Zen, and Tibetan traditions. Interview questions probed meditation experiences and influencing factors, including interpretations and management strategies. A follow-up survey provided quantitative assessments of causality, impairment and other demographic and practice-related variables. The content-driven thematic analysis of interviews yielded a taxonomy of 59 meditation-related experiences across 7 domains: cognitive, perceptual, affective, somatic, conative, sense of self, and social. Even in cases where the phenomenology was similar across participants, interpretations of and responses to the experiences differed considerably. The associated valence ranged from very positive to very negative, and the associated level of distress and functional impairment ranged from minimal and transient to severe and enduring. In order to determine what factors may influence the valence, impact, and response to any given experience, the study also identified 26 categories of influencing factors across 4 domains: practitioner-level factors, practice-level factors, relationships, and health behaviors. By identifying a broader range of experiences associated with meditation, along with the factors that contribute to the presence and management of experiences reported as challenging, difficult, distressing or functionally impairing, this study aims to increase our understanding of the effects of contemplative practices and to provide resources for mediators, clinicians, meditation researchers, and meditation teachers.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 155

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication.

          Little is known about lifetime prevalence or age of onset of DSM-IV disorders. To estimate lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the recently completed National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Nationally representative face-to-face household survey conducted between February 2001 and April 2003 using the fully structured World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Nine thousand two hundred eighty-two English-speaking respondents aged 18 years and older. Lifetime DSM-IV anxiety, mood, impulse-control, and substance use disorders. Lifetime prevalence estimates are as follows: anxiety disorders, 28.8%; mood disorders, 20.8%; impulse-control disorders, 24.8%; substance use disorders, 14.6%; any disorder, 46.4%. Median age of onset is much earlier for anxiety (11 years) and impulse-control (11 years) disorders than for substance use (20 years) and mood (30 years) disorders. Half of all lifetime cases start by age 14 years and three fourths by age 24 years. Later onsets are mostly of comorbid conditions, with estimated lifetime risk of any disorder at age 75 years (50.8%) only slightly higher than observed lifetime prevalence (46.4%). Lifetime prevalence estimates are higher in recent cohorts than in earlier cohorts and have fairly stable intercohort differences across the life course that vary in substantively plausible ways among sociodemographic subgroups. About half of Americans will meet the criteria for a DSM-IV disorder sometime in their life, with first onset usually in childhood or adolescence. Interventions aimed at prevention or early treatment need to focus on youth.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            The qualitative content analysis process.

            This paper is a description of inductive and deductive content analysis. Content analysis is a method that may be used with either qualitative or quantitative data and in an inductive or deductive way. Qualitative content analysis is commonly used in nursing studies but little has been published on the analysis process and many research books generally only provide a short description of this method. When using content analysis, the aim was to build a model to describe the phenomenon in a conceptual form. Both inductive and deductive analysis processes are represented as three main phases: preparation, organizing and reporting. The preparation phase is similar in both approaches. The concepts are derived from the data in inductive content analysis. Deductive content analysis is used when the structure of analysis is operationalized on the basis of previous knowledge. Inductive content analysis is used in cases where there are no previous studies dealing with the phenomenon or when it is fragmented. A deductive approach is useful if the general aim was to test a previous theory in a different situation or to compare categories at different time periods.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Epidemiology of multimorbidity and implications for health care, research, and medical education: a cross-sectional study.

              Long-term disorders are the main challenge facing health-care systems worldwide, but health systems are largely configured for individual diseases rather than multimorbidity. We examined the distribution of multimorbidity, and of comorbidity of physical and mental health disorders, in relation to age and socioeconomic deprivation. In a cross-sectional study we extracted data on 40 morbidities from a database of 1,751,841 people registered with 314 medical practices in Scotland as of March, 2007. We analysed the data according to the number of morbidities, disorder type (physical or mental), sex, age, and socioeconomic status. We defined multimorbidity as the presence of two or more disorders. 42·2% (95% CI 42·1-42·3) of all patients had one or more morbidities, and 23·2% (23·08-23·21) were multimorbid. Although the prevalence of multimorbidity increased substantially with age and was present in most people aged 65 years and older, the absolute number of people with multimorbidity was higher in those younger than 65 years (210,500 vs 194,996). Onset of multimorbidity occurred 10-15 years earlier in people living in the most deprived areas compared with the most affluent, with socioeconomic deprivation particularly associated with multimorbidity that included mental health disorders (prevalence of both physical and mental health disorder 11·0%, 95% CI 10·9-11·2% in most deprived area vs 5·9%, 5·8%-6·0% in least deprived). The presence of a mental health disorder increased as the number of physical morbidities increased (adjusted odds ratio 6·74, 95% CI 6·59-6·90 for five or more disorders vs 1·95, 1·93-1·98 for one disorder), and was much greater in more deprived than in less deprived people (2·28, 2·21-2·32 vs 1·08, 1·05-1·11). Our findings challenge the single-disease framework by which most health care, medical research, and medical education is configured. A complementary strategy is needed, supporting generalist clinicians to provide personalised, comprehensive continuity of care, especially in socioeconomically deprived areas. Scottish Government Chief Scientist Office. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                24 May 2017
                2017
                : 12
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Cogut Center for the Humanities, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America
                [2 ]Department of Religious Studies, University of California, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America
                [3 ]Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University Medical School, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America
                [4 ]Department of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America
                Virginia Commonwealth University, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The Bial Foundation is a commercial source that provided funding for this research. The funder had no role in the study design; collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; writing of the paper; and/or decision to submit for publication. This does not alter our adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

                • Conceptualization: WB JL.

                • Data curation: JL DC NF.

                • Formal analysis: JL DC NF.

                • Funding acquisition: WB NF JL.

                • Investigation: WB JL NF DC.

                • Methodology: WB JL RR.

                • Writing – original draft: WB JL DC NF RR.

                • Writing – review & editing: WB JL DC NF RR.

                [¤]

                Current address: Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University Medical School, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America

                ‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                PONE-D-16-30967
                10.1371/journal.pone.0176239
                5443484
                28542181
                © 2017 Lindahl et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 6, Pages: 38
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000064, National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine;
                Award ID: K23-AT006328-01A1
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Mind and Life Institute
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100005032, Fundação Bial;
                Award ID: 256/12
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: 1440 Foundation
                Award Recipient :
                This study was supported by grant number K23-AT006328-01A1 from the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health ( https://nccih.nih.gov/) at the National Institutes of Health, grant number 256/12 from the Bial Foundation ( www.bial.com) (WB), the Varela Research Award from the Mind and Life Institute ( www.mindandlife.org) (NF) and the 1440 Foundation ( www.1440.org) (WB, JL). The funders had no role in the study design, data collection, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                People and Places
                Population Groupings
                Religious Faiths
                Buddhism
                People and Places
                Population Groupings
                Professions
                Teachers
                Social Sciences
                Anthropology
                Cultural Anthropology
                Religion
                Social Sciences
                Sociology
                Religion
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Neuroscience
                Cognitive Science
                Cognition
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Neuroscience
                Cognitive Science
                Cognitive Neuroscience
                Cognitive Neurology
                Cognitive Impairment
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Neuroscience
                Cognitive Neuroscience
                Cognitive Neurology
                Cognitive Impairment
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Neurology
                Cognitive Neurology
                Cognitive Impairment
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Neuroscience
                Cognitive Science
                Cognitive Psychology
                Perception
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Cognitive Psychology
                Perception
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Cognitive Psychology
                Perception
                People and Places
                Demography
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Neuroscience
                Sensory Perception
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Sensory Perception
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Sensory Perception
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Sensitive and potentially identifying information, including original interviews, cannot be provided due to ethical restrictions. Requests may be sent to the Brown University Institutional Review Board ( IRB@ 123456Brown.edu ).

                Uncategorized

                Comments

                Comment on this article