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Establishing communication mechanism for malaria prevention in Baiga tribal villages in Baiga Chak area of Dindori district, Madhya Pradesh

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      Background & objectives:Malaria is a serious public health concern in several parts of India, particularly in tribal areas of Madhya Pradesh (MP). Dindori district inhabitated by Baiga tribe, contributes about 15 per cent to the total malaria burden in MP. The tribal and other local inhabitants believe in magico-religious treatment of malaria and use modern health facilities only as second line of treatment. The present study was planned in the villages of one of the particularly vulnerable tribal group of MP, the Baigas. The objective of the study was to generate awareness and utilization of health services for malaria by establishing a communication strategy using local students and unemployed youths as agents of change.Methods:The study was undertaken in 47 villages and the need based IEC (information, education and communication) intervention was evaluated within four months of initiation by adopting before and after with control design. For both baseline and resurvey the households covered each time were 2350.Results:The baseline data generated revealed that around 53 per cent of the people in the study villages were aware of malaria. Among the non Baigas, 59 per cent were aware of malaria, while among the Baigas it was 49 per cent. IEC intervention could raise the level of awareness to malaria significantly with a net intervention effect of 23 per cent. The IEC intervention also improved the utilization of modern health services significantly.Interpretation & conclusions:The IEC strategy designed by using local children and youths was effective as the malaria was on decline in the study area. The same strategy with necessary modifications may be replicated in other areas pandemic for malaria.

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      Adult and child malaria mortality in India: a nationally representative mortality survey.

      National malaria death rates are difficult to assess because reliably diagnosed malaria is likely to be cured, and deaths in the community from undiagnosed malaria could be misattributed in retrospective enquiries to other febrile causes of death, or vice-versa. We aimed to estimate plausible ranges of malaria mortality in India, the most populous country where the disease remains common. Full-time non-medical field workers interviewed families or other respondents about each of 122,000 deaths during 2001-03 in 6671 randomly selected areas of India, obtaining a half-page narrative plus answers to specific questions about the severity and course of any fevers. Each field report was sent to two of 130 trained physicians, who independently coded underlying causes, with discrepancies resolved either via anonymous reconciliation or adjudication. Of all coded deaths at ages 1 month to 70 years, 2681 (3·6%) of 75,342 were attributed to malaria. Of these, 2419 (90%) were in rural areas and 2311 (86%) were not in any health-care facility. Death rates attributed to malaria correlated geographically with local malaria transmission ratesderived independently from the Indian malaria control programme. The adjudicated results show 205,000 malaria deaths per year in India before age 70 years (55,000 in early childhood, 30,000 at ages 5-14 years, 120,000 at ages 15-69 years); 1·8% cumulative probability of death from malaria before age 70 years. Plausible lower and upper bounds (on the basis of only the initial coding) were 125,000-277,000. Malaria accounted for a substantial minority of about 1·3 million unattended rural fever deaths attributed to infectious diseases in people younger than 70 years. Despite uncertainty as to which unattended febrile deaths are from malaria, even the lower bound greatly exceeds the WHO estimate of only 15,000 malaria deaths per year in India (5000 early childhood, 10 000 thereafter). This low estimate should be reconsidered, as should the low WHO estimate of adult malaria deaths worldwide. US National Institutes of Health, Canadian Institute of Health Research, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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        Malaria is among the oldest of diseases. In one form or another, it has infected and affected our ancestors since long before the origin of the human line. During our recent evolution, its influence has probably been greater than that of any other infectious agent. Here we attempt to trace the forms and impacts of malaria from a distant past through historical times to the present. In the last sections, we review the current burdens of malaria across the world and discuss present-day approaches to its management. Only by following, or attempting to follow, malaria throughout its evolution and history can we understand its character and so be better prepared for our future management of this ancient ill.
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           J Najera (2001)
          Even if history has not always been the Magistra vitae, Cicero expected it to be, it should provide, as Baas said, a mirror in which to observe and compare the past and present in order to draw therefrom well-grounded conclusions for the future. Based on this belief, this paper aims to provide an overview of the foundations and development of malaria control policies during the XX century. It presents an analysis of the conflicting tendencies which shaped the development of these policies and which appear to have oscillated between calls for frontal attack in an all-out campaign and calls for sustainable gains, even if slow. It discusses the various approaches to the control of malaria, their achievements and their limitations, not only to serve as a background to understand better the foundations of current policies, but also to prevent that simplistic generalisations may again lead to exaggerated expectations and disillusion. The first part of the paper is devoted to the development of malaria control during the first half of the century, characterised by the ups and downs in the reliance on mosquito control as the control measure applicable everywhere. The proliferation of "man-made-malaria", which accompanied the push for economic development in most of the endemic countries, spurred the need for control interventions and, while great successes were obtained in many specific projects, the general campaigns proposed by the enthusiasts of vector control faced increasing difficulties in their practical implementation in the field. Important events, which may be considered representative of this period are, on the campaign approach, the success of Gorgas in the Panama Canal, but also the failure of the Mian Mir project in India; while on the developmental approach, the Italian and Dutch schools of malariology, the Tennessee Valley and the development of malaria sanitation, included the so called species sanitation. The projection of these developments to a global scale was steered by the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations and greatly supported by the Rockefeller Foundation. Perhaps the most important contribution of this period was the development of malaria epidemiology, including the study of the genesis of epidemics and their possible forecasting and prevention. Although the great effectiveness of DDT was perhaps the main determinant for proposing the global eradication of the disease in the 1950s, it was the confidence in the epidemiological knowledge and the prestige of malariology, which gave credibility to the proposal at the political level. The second part deals with the global malaria eradication campaign of the 1950s and 1960s. It recognises the enormous impact of the eradication effort in the consolidation of the control successes of the first half of the century, as well as its influence in the development of planning of health programmes. Nevertheless, it also stresses the negative influence that the failure to achieve its utopian expectations had on the general disappointment and slow progress of malaria control, which characterised the last third of the century. The paper then analyses the evolution of malaria control funding, which often appears out of tune with political statements. The fourth part is devoted to the search for realistic approaches to malaria control, leading to the adoption of the global malaria control strategy in Amsterdam in 1992, and the challenge, at the end of the century, to rally forces commensurate with the magnitude of the problem, while aiming at realistic objectives. After discussing the conflicting views on the relations between malaria and socio-economic development and the desirable integration of malaria control into sustainable development, the paper ends with some considerations on the perspectives of malaria control, as seen by the author in early 1998, just before the launching of the current Roll Back Malaria initiative by WHO.

            Author and article information

            National Institute for Research in Tribal Health (ICMR), Jabalpur, India
            Author notes
            Reprint requests: Dr Neeru Singh, National Institute for Research in Tribal Health (ICMR) PO-Garha, Nagpur Road, Jabalpur 482 003, Madhya Pradesh, India e-mail: neeru.singh@
            Indian J Med Res
            Indian J. Med. Res
            The Indian Journal of Medical Research
            Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
            May 2015
            : 141
            : 5
            : 576-583
            Copyright: © Indian Journal of Medical Research

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Original Article


            baiga tribe, folk theatre, iec intervention, malaria


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