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      Expression Profile of Hyaluronidase mRNA Transcripts in the Kidney and in Renal Cells

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          The accumulation of hyaluronan (HA) in the renal cortex is a characteristic feature of inflammatory renal diseases. Fragments of HA derived from high molecular weight precursors are known to display inflammatory effects in vitro and could, therefore, participate in immune renal injury. To understand the mechanisms of HA fragmentation in vivo we examined the expression of recently characterized mammalian hyaluronidases in normal and autoimmune kidneys and in cell lines. We found that transcripts for the lysosomal–type hyaluronidases Hyal1 and Hyal2 were constitutively expressed in normal and autoimmune kidneys as well as in tubular epithelial cells and in a macrophage cell line. The expression of hyaluronidase genes in the cell lines did not increase in response to treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha or gamma interferon. Interestingly, transcripts for the testicular–type hyaluronidase PH–20 (Spam1, Hyal3) were also detected in normal and autoimmune kidneys as well as in tubular cells and macrophages. Transcript levels were higher in kidneys from male mice as compared with age–matched females. Again, transcript levels did not change in vitro in response to cytokines. We conclude that mRNA for three different hyaluronidases is found in murine kidneys. The functional role played by these hyaluronidases in the degradation and metabolism of HA remains to be investigated further.

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          Most cited references 3

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          HYAL2, a human gene expressed in many cells, encodes a lysosomal hyaluronidase with a novel type of specificity.

          Using Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) deposited in the data banks, a cDNA has been assembled that encodes a protein related to the hyaluronidases from bee venom and mammalian sperm. Expression of this cDNA yielded a polypeptide termed HYAL2, which is located in lysosomes. The HYAL2 protein was shown to have hyaluronidase activity below pH 4. However, it only hydrolyzed hyaluronan of high molecular mass from umbilical cord, rooster comb, and a Streptococcus strain. The reaction product was a polysaccharide of about 20 kDa, which was further hydrolyzed to small oligosaccharides by the sperm hyaluronidase. Conversely, hyaluronan fragments from vitreous humor, which had a molecular mass of about 20 kDa, were not cleaved by the HYAL2 enzyme to any detectable extent. These results provide evidence for the existence of structural domains in hyaluronan, which are resistant to the action of this enzyme. The structural and functional implications of these findings are discussed.
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            Expression of hyaluronidase by tumor cells induces angiogenesis in vivo.

            Hyaluronic acid is a proteoglycan present in the extracellular matrix and is important for the maintenance of tissue architecture. Depolymerization of hyaluronic acid may facilitate tumor invasion. In addition, oligosaccharides of hyaluronic acid have been reported to induce angiogenesis. We report here that a hyaluronidase similar to the one on human sperm is expressed by metastatic human melanoma, colon carcinoma, and glioblastoma cell lines and by tumor biopsies from patients with colorectal carcinomas, but not by tissues from normal colon. Moreover, angiogenesis is induced by hyaluronidase+ tumor cells but not hyaluronidase- tumor cells and can be blocked by an inhibitor of hyaluronidase. Tumor cells thus use hyaluronidase as one of the "molecular saboteurs" to depolymerize hyaluronic acid to facilitate invasion. As a consequence, breakdown products of hyaluronic acid can further promote tumor establishment by inducing angiogenesis. Hyaluronidase on tumor cells may provide a target for anti-neoplastic drugs.
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              The murine Spam1 gene: RNA expression pattern and lower steady-state levels associated with the Rb(6.16) translocation


                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                06 February 1999
                : 21
                : 6
                : 413-418
                aPhysiological Institute, University Zürich–Irchel, and bInstitute of Anesthesiology and cDivision of Nephrology, University Hospital, Zürich, Switzerland
                25893 Kidney Blood Press Res 1998;21:413–418
                © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 36, Pages: 6
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                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Inflammation, Kidney, Hyaluronan, Hyaluronidase, Macrophages, Tubular cells


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