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      Increased Dialysate MCP-1 is Associated with Cardiovascular Mortality in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: A Prospective Observational Study

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          Abstract

          Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the dialysate MCP-1 (dMCP-1) and systemic inflammatory and nutritional markers in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. In addition, we examined the prognostic value of dMCP-1 on all-cause or cardiovascular mortality in these patients. Methods: We prospectively followed 169 prevalent PD patients from April 1st 2008 to December 31st 2012. At baseline, dMCP-1 and serum biochemical parameters including high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) and albumin were checked. All-cause mortality and cause of death were evaluated during the follow-up period. Based on the median level of dMCP-1, patients were classified as either low or high dMCP-1 groups. Results: Mean age, hs-CRP, and D/Pcr ratio at 4 h were significantly higher, while serum albumin levels and %lean body mass (LBM) were significantly lower in the high dMCP-1 group. During the mean follow-up period of 47.7 months, all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality rate were significantly higher in the high dMCP-1 group (9.6 and 6.3 per 100 person-years, respectively) compared to the low dMCP-1 group (5.1 and 3.1 per 100 person-years, respectively; p = 0.021, 0.038). In multivariate Cox analysis, high dMCP-1 was a significant independent predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 1.83, 95% confidence interval: 1.03-3.24, p = 0.039). Conclusions: dMCP-1 levels are closely correlated with nutritional and systemic inflammatory markers in PD patients. In addition, increased dMCP-1 is significantly associated with higher all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. These findings suggest that local peritoneal inflammation could contribute to poor clinical outcomes in PD patients.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome in dialysis patients: causes and consequences.

          Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and inflammation are common and usually concurrent in maintenance dialysis patients. Many factors that appear to lead to these 2 conditions overlap, as do assessment tools and such criteria for detecting them as hypoalbuminemia. Both these conditions are related to poor dialysis outcome. Low appetite and a hypercatabolic state are among common features. PEM in dialysis patients has been suggested to be secondary to inflammation; however, the evidence is not conclusive, and an equicausal status or even opposite causal direction is possible. Hence, malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome (MICS) is an appropriate term. Possible causes of MICS include comorbid illnesses, oxidative and carbonyl stress, nutrient loss through dialysis, anorexia and low nutrient intake, uremic toxins, decreased clearance of inflammatory cytokines, volume overload, and dialysis-related factors. MICS is believed to be the main cause of erythropoietin hyporesponsiveness, high rate of cardiovascular atherosclerotic disease, decreased quality of life, and increased mortality and hospitalization in dialysis patients. Because MICS leads to a low body mass index, hypocholesterolemia, hypocreatininemia, and hypohomocysteinemia, a "reverse epidemiology" of cardiovascular risks can occur in dialysis patients. Therefore, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and increased blood levels of creatinine and homocysteine appear to be protective and paradoxically associated with a better outcome. There is no consensus about how to determine the degree of severity of MICS or how to manage it. Several diagnostic tools and treatment modalities are discussed. Successful management of MICS may ameliorate the cardiovascular epidemic and poor outcome in dialysis patients. Clinical trials focusing on MICS and its possible causes and consequences are urgently required to improve poor clinical outcome in dialysis patients.
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            Modulation of C-reactive protein-mediated monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 induction in human endothelial cells by anti-atherosclerosis drugs.

            C-reactive protein (CRP) induces adhesion molecule expression by endothelial cells. However, the effects of CRP on chemokine expression by endothelial cells are not known. We tested the effects of CRP on the production of the chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and RANTES in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The secretion of chemokines was assessed by ELISA. Incubation with 100 microgram/mL recombinant human CRP induced a 7-fold increase in MCP-1 but no change in RANTES secretion. We showed that the effect of CRP on MCP-1 was present even at 5 microgram/mL CRP, with stepwise increases as the CRP concentration was increased to 10, 50, and 100 microgram/mL. The effect of CRP on MCP-1 induction was not influenced by aspirin (at concentrations up to 1 mmol/L), but it was significantly inhibited by 5 micromol/L simvastatin. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha activators fenofibrate (100 micromol/L) and Wy-14649 (100 micromol/L) almost completely abolished the induction of MCP-1, but the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activator ciglitazone had only a moderate effect. These results further strengthen the role of CRP in the pathogenesis of vascular inflammation and, likely, atherosclerosis and provide a crucial insight into a novel mechanism of action of anti-atherosclerosis drugs such as simvastatin and fenofibrate.
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              The malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis (MIA) syndrome - the heart of the matter

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2014
                November 2014
                15 October 2014
                : 40
                : 4
                : 291-299
                Affiliations
                Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
                Author notes
                *Tae-Hyun Yoo, MD, PhD, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Brain Korea 21, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul (South Korea) 120-752, E-Mail yoosy0316@yuhs.ac
                Article
                368201 Am J Nephrol 2014;40:291-299
                10.1159/000368201
                25323428
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 4, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research

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