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      Coordination-Driven Self-Assembly Using Ditopic Pyridyl-Pyrazolyl Donor and p-Cymene Ru(II) Acceptors: [2]Catenane Synthesis and Anticancer Activities.

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          Coordination-driven self-assembly of m-bis[3-(4-pyridyl)pyrazolyl]xylene (L) and [(p-cymene)2Ru2(OO∩OO)2(OTf)2] (A1) (OO∩OO = 6,11-dioxido-5,12-naphthacenedione) in methanol resulted in a mixture of [2]catenane 1 and macrocycle 2, and self-assembly in nitromethane resulted in pure macrocycle 2, whereas the coordination-driven self-assembly of L and similar acceptors [(p-cymene)2Ru2(OO∩OO)2(OTf)2] [OO∩OO = 5,8-dioxido-1,4-naphthoquinonnato (A2); 2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzoquinonato (A3); oxalato (A4)] resulted in the formations of monomeric macrocycles 3-5, respectively. All self-assembled macrocycles were obtained in excellent yields (>90%) as triflate salts and were fully characterized by multinuclear NMR, elemental analysis, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The structures of [2]catenane 1 and macrocycles 5 were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The X-ray structure of 1 confirmed an edge-to-face interaction between the tetracene moiety in parallel-displaced π-π stacks (3.5 Å), and CH···π (2.5 Å) stabilizes the [2]catenane topology. Macrocycles 2-5 were assessed for anticancer activities using human cancer cell lines of different origins, and the macrocycle 3 was found to exhibit the best inhibitory effect and to do so in a dose-dependent manner. Further examination with the Tali apoptosis assay suggested the growth inhibitory effect of 3 involved the induction of the programmed cell death, and this suggestion was supported by observations of PARP and caspase 3 cleavage after treating cells with 3. In addition, exposure to 3 increased the expression of Bax and repressed the expression of Bcl-2, thus indicating the involvement of macrocycle 3 upstream of Bax and Bcl-2 in the apoptotic signaling pathway. Macrocycle 3 also tended to repress metastasis as evidenced by changes in the transcriptional expressions E- and N-cadherin (markers of metastasis). Furthermore, a stability assay demonstrated macrocycle 3 remained stable at high concentration.

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          Author and article information

          Inorg Chem
          Inorganic chemistry
          American Chemical Society (ACS)
          Jul 17 2017
          : 56
          : 14
          [1 ] Department of Chemistry, University of Ulsan , Ulsan 44610, Republic of Korea.
          [2 ] College of Life Science, Kyung Hee University , Yongin 17104, Republic of Korea.
          [3 ] Energy Materials Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research , Daejeon 28119, Republic of Korea.


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