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      Action Potential Modulation in CA1 Pyramidal Neuron Axons Facilitates OLM Interneuron Activation in Recurrent Inhibitory Microcircuits of Rat Hippocampus

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          Abstract

          Oriens-lacunosum moleculare (O-LM) interneurons in the CA1 region of the hippocampus play a key role in feedback inhibition and in the control of network activity. However, how these cells are efficiently activated in the network remains unclear. To address this question, I performed recordings from CA1 pyramidal neuron axons, the presynaptic fibers that provide feedback innervation of these interneurons. Two forms of axonal action potential (AP) modulation were identified. First, repetitive stimulation resulted in activity-dependent AP broadening. Broadening showed fast onset, with marked changes in AP shape following a single AP. Second, tonic depolarization in CA1 pyramidal neuron somata induced AP broadening in the axon, and depolarization-induced broadening summated with activity-dependent broadening. Outside-out patch recordings from CA1 pyramidal neuron axons revealed a high density of α-dendrotoxin (α-DTX)-sensitive, inactivating K + channels, suggesting that K + channel inactivation mechanistically contributes to AP broadening. To examine the functional consequences of axonal AP modulation for synaptic transmission, I performed paired recordings between synaptically connected CA1 pyramidal neurons and O-LM interneurons. CA1 pyramidal neuron–O-LM interneuron excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) showed facilitation during both repetitive stimulation and tonic depolarization of the presynaptic neuron. Both effects were mimicked and occluded by α-DTX, suggesting that they were mediated by K + channel inactivation. Therefore, axonal AP modulation can greatly facilitate the activation of O-LM interneurons. In conclusion, modulation of AP shape in CA1 pyramidal neuron axons substantially enhances the efficacy of principal neuron–interneuron synapses, promoting the activation of O-LM interneurons in recurrent inhibitory microcircuits.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Short-term synaptic plasticity.

          Synaptic transmission is a dynamic process. Postsynaptic responses wax and wane as presynaptic activity evolves. This prominent characteristic of chemical synaptic transmission is a crucial determinant of the response properties of synapses and, in turn, of the stimulus properties selected by neural networks and of the patterns of activity generated by those networks. This review focuses on synaptic changes that result from prior activity in the synapse under study, and is restricted to short-term effects that last for at most a few minutes. Forms of synaptic enhancement, such as facilitation, augmentation, and post-tetanic potentiation, are usually attributed to effects of a residual elevation in presynaptic [Ca(2+)]i, acting on one or more molecular targets that appear to be distinct from the secretory trigger responsible for fast exocytosis and phasic release of transmitter to single action potentials. We discuss the evidence for this hypothesis, and the origins of the different kinetic phases of synaptic enhancement, as well as the interpretation of statistical changes in transmitter release and roles played by other factors such as alterations in presynaptic Ca(2+) influx or postsynaptic levels of [Ca(2+)]i. Synaptic depression dominates enhancement at many synapses. Depression is usually attributed to depletion of some pool of readily releasable vesicles, and various forms of the depletion model are discussed. Depression can also arise from feedback activation of presynaptic receptors and from postsynaptic processes such as receptor desensitization. In addition, glial-neuronal interactions can contribute to short-term synaptic plasticity. Finally, we summarize the recent literature on putative molecular players in synaptic plasticity and the effects of genetic manipulations and other modulatory influences.
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            Theta oscillations in the hippocampus.

            Theta oscillations represent the "on-line" state of the hippocampus. The extracellular currents underlying theta waves are generated mainly by the entorhinal input, CA3 (Schaffer) collaterals, and voltage-dependent Ca(2+) currents in pyramidal cell dendrites. The rhythm is believed to be critical for temporal coding/decoding of active neuronal ensembles and the modification of synaptic weights. Nevertheless, numerous critical issues regarding both the generation of theta oscillations and their functional significance remain challenges for future research.
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              Interneurons of the hippocampus.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2014
                19 November 2014
                : 9
                : 11
                Affiliations
                IST Austria (Institute of Science and Technology Austria), Klosterneuburg, Austria
                UCL School of Pharmacy, United Kingdom
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The author has declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: SK. Performed the experiments: SK. Analyzed the data: SK. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: SK.

                Article
                PONE-D-14-25798
                10.1371/journal.pone.0113124
                4237399
                25409299

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Pages: 9
                Funding
                This work was supported by the European Union (ERC advanced grant 268548) to P. Jonas. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Anatomy
                Nervous System
                Synapses
                Pre-Synaptic Membranes
                Biochemistry
                Proteins
                Ion Channels
                Potassium Channels
                Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels
                Ion Channel Gating
                Voltage-Gated Ion Channels
                Biophysics
                Neuroscience
                Neurophysiology
                Action Potentials
                Brain Electrophysiology
                Cellular Neuroscience
                Neurotransmission
                Custom metadata
                The authors confirm that all data underlying the findings are fully available without restriction. All relevant data are available from the FigShare database (10.6084/m9.figshare.1172052).

                Uncategorized

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