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      Combination therapy of inhaled steroids and long-acting beta2-agonists in asthma–COPD overlap syndrome

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          Abstract

          Background

          The efficacy of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs)/long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) treatment in patients with asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS) compared to patients with COPD alone has rarely been examined. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy for the improvement of lung function after ICS/LABA treatment in patients with ACOS compared to COPD alone patients.

          Methods

          Patients with stable COPD were selected from the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease (KOLD) cohort. Subjects began a 3-month ICS/LABA treatment after a washout period. ACOS was defined when the patients had 1) a personal history of asthma, irrespective of age, and wheezing in the last 12 months in a self-reported survey and 2) a positive bronchodilator response.

          Results

          Among 152 eligible COPD patients, 45 (29.6%) fulfilled the criteria for ACOS. After a 3-month treatment with ICS/LABA, the increase in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1) was significantly greater in ACOS patients than in those with COPD alone (240.2±33.5 vs 124.6±19.8 mL, P=0.002). This increase in FEV 1 persisted even after adjustment for confounding factors (adjusted P=0.002). According to severity of baseline FEV 1, the ACOS group showed a significantly greater increase in FEV 1 than the COPD-alone group in patients with mild-to-moderate airflow limitation (223.2±42.9 vs 84.6±25.3 mL, P=0.005), whereas there was no statistically significant difference in patients with severe to very severe airflow limitation.

          Conclusion

          This study provides clinical evidence that ACOS patients with mild-to-moderate airflow limitation showed a greater response in lung function after 3 months of ICS/LABA combination treatment.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study of fluticasone propionate in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the ISOLDE trial.

          To determine the effect of long term inhaled corticosteroids on lung function, exacerbations, and health status in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Double blind, placebo controlled study. Eighteen UK hospitals. 751 men and women aged between 40 and 75 years with mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) 50% of predicted normal. Inhaled fluticasone propionate 500 microgram twice daily from a metered dose inhaler or identical placebo. Efficacy measures: rate of decline in FEV(1) after the bronchodilator and in health status, frequency of exacerbations, respiratory withdrawals. Safety measures: morning serum cortisol concentration, incidence of adverse events. There was no significant difference in the annual rate of decline in FEV(1 )(P=0.16). Mean FEV(1) after bronchodilator remained significantly higher throughout the study with fluticasone propionate compared with placebo (P<0.001). Median exacerbation rate was reduced by 25% from 1.32 a year on placebo to 0.99 a year on with fluticasone propionate (P=0.026). Health status deteriorated by 3.2 units a year on placebo and 2.0 units a year on fluticasone propionate (P=0.0043). Withdrawals because of respiratory disease not related to malignancy were higher in the placebo group (25% v 19%, P=0.034). Fluticasone propionate 500 microgram twice daily did not affect the rate of decline in FEV(1) but did produce a small increase in FEV(1). Patients on fluticasone propionate had fewer exacerbations and a slower decline in health status. These improvements in clinical outcomes support the use of this treatment in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
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            The clinical features of the overlap between COPD and asthma

            Background The coexistence of COPD and asthma is widely recognized but has not been well described. This study characterizes clinical features, spirometry, and chest CT scans of smoking subjects with both COPD and asthma. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study comparing subjects with COPD and asthma to subjects with COPD alone in the COPDGene Study. Results 119 (13%) of 915 subjects with COPD reported a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These subjects were younger (61.3 vs 64.7 years old, p = 0.0001) with lower lifetime smoking intensity (43.7 vs 55.1 pack years, p = 0.0001). More African-Americans reported a history of asthma (33.6% vs 15.6%, p < 0.0001). Subjects with COPD and asthma demonstrated worse disease-related quality of life, were more likely to have had a severe COPD exacerbation in the past year, and were more likely to experience frequent exacerbations (OR 3.55 [2.19, 5.75], p < 0.0001). Subjects with COPD and asthma demonstrated greater gas-trapping on chest CT. There were no differences in spirometry or CT measurements of emphysema or airway wall thickness. Conclusion Subjects with COPD and asthma represent a relevant clinical population, with worse health-related quality of life. They experience more frequent and severe respiratory exacerbations despite younger age and reduced lifetime smoking history. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00608764
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              Effect of inhaled triamcinolone on the decline in pulmonary function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

                (2000)
              Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) results from a progressive decline in lung function, which is thought to be the consequence of airway inflammation. We hypothesized that antiinflammatory therapy with inhaled corticosteroids would slow this decline. We enrolled 1116 persons with COPD whose forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was 30 to 90 percent of the predicted value in a 10-center, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of inhaled triamcinolone acetonide administered at a dose of 600 microg twice daily. The primary outcome measure was the rate of decline in FEV1 after the administration of a bronchodilator. The secondary outcome measures included respiratory symptoms, use of health care services, and airway reactivity. In a substudy of 412 participants, we measured bone density in the lumbar spine and femur at base line and one and three years after the beginning of treatment. The mean duration of follow-up was 40 months. The rate of decline in the FEV1 after bronchodilator use was similar in the 559 participants in the triamcinolone group and the 557 participants in the placebo group (44.2+/-2.9 vs. 47.0+/-3.0 ml per year, P= 0.50). Members of the triamcinolone group had fewer respiratory symptoms during the course of the study (21.1 per 100 person-years vs. 28.2 per 100 person-years, P=0.005) and had fewer visits to a physician because of a respiratory illness (1.2 per 100 person-years vs. 2.1 per 100 person-years, P=0.03). Those taking triamcinolone also had lower airway reactivity in response to methacholine challenge at 9 months and 33 months (P=0.02 for both comparisons). After three years, the bone density of the lumbar spine and the femur was significantly lower in the triamcinolone group (P < or = 0.007). Inhaled triamcinolone does not slow the rate of decline in lung function in people with COPD, but it improves airway reactivity and respiratory symptoms and decreases the use of health care services for respiratory problems. These benefits should be weighed against the potential long-term adverse effects of triamcinolone on bone mineral density.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2016
                08 November 2016
                : 11
                : 2797-2803
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine
                [2 ]Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul
                [3 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Bundang CHA Medical Center, CHA University College of Medicine, Seongnam
                [4 ]Department of Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine
                [5 ]Division of Pulmonology and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul
                [6 ]Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University Medical School, Gyeonggido
                [7 ]Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yong Bum Park, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, 150, Seongan-ro, Gangdong-gu, Seoul, 134-701, South Korea, Tel +82 2 2224 2754, Fax +82 2 2224 2569, Email bfspark2@ 123456gmail.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                copd-11-2797
                10.2147/COPD.S114964
                5108502
                © 2016 Lee et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive, asthma, respiratory function tests

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