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      Development of a tin oxide carrier with mesoporous structure for improving the dissolution rate and oral relative bioavailability of fenofibrate

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          Abstract

          Background

          Biopharmaceutics classification system class II drugs have low solubility, which limits their extent and speed of absorption after oral administration. Over the years, mesoporous materials have been widely used to increase the dissolution rate and oral relative bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs.

          Objectives

          In order to improve the dissolution rate and increase oral relative bioavailability of the poorly water-soluble drugs, a tin oxide carrier (MSn) with a mesoporous structure was successfully synthesized.

          Methods

          In this study, MSn was synthesized using mesoporous silica material (SBA-15) as the template. Fenofibrate (FNB) was adsorbed into the channels of MSn by an adsorption method. Characterizations of the pure FNB, MSn, physical mixture of the drug and MSn (PM; 1:1) and FNB-loaded MSn (FNB-MSn) samples were carried out by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N 2 adsorption/desorption, powder X-ray diffractometer (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Cytotoxicity assay (MTT) was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of MSn. In vitro dissolution studies were performed to investigate the dissolution rate of FNB-MSn. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies were used to investigate the changes of plasma drug concentrations of FNB-MSn tablets and commercial FNB tablets in rabbits.

          Results

          Detailed characterization showed that FNB in the channels of MSn was present in an amorphous state. The in vitro release tests demonstrated that MSn with a good biocompatibility could effectively enhance the dissolution rate of FNB. Pharmacokinetic results indicated that MSn significantly increased the oral relative bioavailability of FNB.

          Conclusion

          MSn can be regarded as a promising carrier for an oral drug delivery system.

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          Most cited references 48

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          Spherical mesoporous silica nanoparticles for loading and release of the poorly water-soluble drug telmisartan.

          The purpose of this study was to develop mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) loaded with a poorly water-soluble drug, intended to be orally administered, able to improve the dissolution rate and enhance the drug loading capacity. Spherical MSNs were synthesized using an organic template method in an oil/water phase, and large pore diameter MSNs were functionalized with aminopropyl groups through postsynthesis. MSNs as well as the resulting functionalized MSNs were investigated as matrices for loading and release of the model drug telmisartan (TEL). The effects of different pore sizes and surface chemical groups on TEL uptake and release were systematically studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and HPLC. The total pore volume and the pore diameter of MSNs were the two main factors limiting the maximum drug load capacity. MSNs allow a very high drug loading of about 60% in weight. The release rate of TEL from MSNs with a pore diameter of 12.9 nm was found to be effectively increased and the release rate of TEL from the functionalized MSNs was effectively controlled compared with that from the unmodified MSNs. We believe that the present study will help in the design of oral drug delivery systems for the dissolution enhancement and/or sustained release of poorly water-soluble drugs. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            Enhanced bioavailability of the poorly water-soluble drug fenofibrate by using liposomes containing a bile salt.

            The main purpose of this study was to evaluate oral bioavailability of the poorly water-soluble drug fenofibrate when liposomes containing a bile salt were used as oral drug delivery systems. Liposomes composed of soybean phosphotidylcholine (SPC) and sodium deoxycholate (SDC) were prepared by a dry-film dispersing method coupled with sonication and homogenization. Several properties of the liposomes, including particle size, entrapment efficiency and membrane fluidity, were extensively characterized. In vitro release experiments indicated that no more than 20% of total fenofibrate was released from SPC/cholesterol (CL) and SPC/SDC liposomes at 2 h, in contrast with near complete release for micronized fenofibrate capsules. Strikingly, in vivo measurements of pharmacokinetics and bioavailability demonstrated higher rates of fenofibrate absorption from both SPC/SDC and SPC/CL liposomes than micronized fenofibrate. The bioavailability of SPC/SDC and SPC/CL liposomes was 5.13- and 3.28-fold higher, respectively, than that of the micronized fenofibrate. The disparity between oral bioavailability and in vitro release for liposomes strongly suggests alternative absorption mechanisms rather than enhanced release. Importantly, SPC/SDC liposomes exhibited a 1.57-fold increase in bioavailability relative to SPC/CL liposomes, indicating that liposomes containing bile salts may be used to enhance oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs.
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              Mesoporous silica material TUD-1 as a drug delivery system.

              For the first time the feasibility of siliceous mesoporous material TUD-1 (Technische Universiteit Delft) for drug delivery was studied. Model drug, ibuprofen, was adsorbed into TUD-1 mesopores via a soaking procedure. Characterizations with nitrogen adsorption, XRD, TG, HPLC and DSC demonstrated the successful inclusion of ibuprofen into TUD-1 host. The amount of ibuprofen adsorbed into the nanoreservoir of TUD-1 material was higher than reported for other mesoporous silica drug carriers (drug/carrier 49.5 wt.%). Drug release studies in vitro (HBSS buffer pH 5.5) demonstrated a fast and unrestricted liberation of ibuprofen, with 96% released at 210 min of the dissolution assay. The drug dissolution profile of TUD-1 material with the random, foam-like three-dimensional mesopore network and high accessibility to the dissolution medium was found to be much faster (kinetic constant k = 10.7) and more diffusion based (release constant n = 0.64) compared to a mesoporous MCM-41 material with smaller, unidirectional mesopore channels (k = 4.7, n = 0.71). Also, the mesoporous carriers were found to significantly increase the dissolution rate of ibuprofen, when compared to the pure crystalline form of the drug (k = 0.6, n = 0.96). TUD-1 was constituted as a potential drug delivery device with fast release property, with prospective applications in the formulation of poorly soluble drug compounds.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2018
                10 July 2018
                : 12
                : 2129-2138
                Affiliations
                Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou 121000, Liaoning, People’s Republic of China, zifengas123@ 123456163.com
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Chao Wu, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Jinzhou Medical University, 40 Songpo Road, Linghe, Jinzhou 121000, Liaoning, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 416 467 3439, Email zifengas123@ 123456163.com
                Article
                dddt-12-2129
                10.2147/DDDT.S166989
                6044342
                © 2018 Bai et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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