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      Cocaine and the Eye: A Historical Overview

      Ophthalmologica

      S. Karger AG

      Local anaesthesia, history, Cocaine use, history, Ophthalmology, history

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          Abstract

          Cocaine was brought to Europe after the discovery of America. In the 19th century, the active component of coca leaves, named cocaine, was extracted and several researchers started experimenting with the substance, describing many physiological and pathological effects of its action. The first scholar to practically demonstrate the possibility of using cocaine solution in medicine, mostly ophthalmology, was Carl Koller. Following this remarkable achievement cocaine became the substance most frequently applied for different types of anaesthesia. Halsted and Hall reported the first successful nerve block of the interior dental nerve with 4% cocaine solution. In 1892, Schleich published the results of his studies in which he used a 0.1–0.2% solution of cocaine hydrochloride intra- and subcutaneously, introducing the so-called infiltration anaesthesia. At the end of the 19th century it was, however, demonstrated that cocaine possessed many undesirable effects, including addiction, which triggered off interest in other, less toxic, anaesthetics.

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          Most cited references 15

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          History of the development and evolution of local anesthesia since the coca leaf.

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            ON THE USE OF COCAINE FOR PRODUCING ANÆSTHESIA ON THE EYE.

             Carl Koller (1884)
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              Cocaine-related movement disorders.

              We describe four patients, two with Tourette's syndrome, one with the combination of idiopathic dystonia and essential-like tremor, and one with tardive dystonia, who noted marked exacerbation of their movement disorders after exposure to cocaine. These patients provide support for the hypothesis that dopaminergic preponderance plays an important role in the pathogenesis of certain hyperkinetic movement disorders. Cocaine should be regarded as an important cause or precipitant of hyperkinetic movement disorders.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                OPH
                Ophthalmologica
                10.1159/issn.0030-3755
                Ophthalmologica
                S. Karger AG
                0030-3755
                1423-0267
                2008
                September 2008
                20 June 2008
                : 222
                : 5
                : 296-301
                Affiliations
                Department of History of Medicine, Karol Marcinkowski University Medical School, Poznań, Poland
                Article
                140625 Ophthalmologica 2008;222:296–301
                10.1159/000140625
                18566545
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 31, Pages: 6
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