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      Hepatitis B virus X protein identifies the Smc5/6 complex as a host restriction factor.

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          Abstract

          Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is a leading cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer. Hepatitis B virus encodes the regulatory HBx protein whose primary role is to promote transcription of the viral genome, which persists as an extrachromosomal DNA circle in infected cells. HBx accomplishes this task by an unusual mechanism, enhancing transcription only from extrachromosomal DNA templates. Here we show that HBx achieves this by hijacking the cellular DDB1-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase to target the 'structural maintenance of chromosomes' (Smc) complex Smc5/6 for degradation. Blocking this event inhibits the stimulatory effect of HBx both on extrachromosomal reporter genes and on hepatitis B virus transcription. Conversely, silencing the Smc5/6 complex enhances extrachromosomal reporter gene transcription in the absence of HBx, restores replication of an HBx-deficient hepatitis B virus, and rescues wild-type hepatitis B virus in a DDB1-knockdown background. The Smc5/6 complex associates with extrachromosomal reporters and the hepatitis B virus genome, suggesting a direct mechanism of transcriptional inhibition. These results uncover a novel role for the Smc5/6 complex as a restriction factor selectively blocking extrachromosomal DNA transcription. By destroying this complex, HBx relieves the inhibition to allow productive hepatitis B virus gene expression.

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          Most cited references 36

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          The V proteins of paramyxoviruses bind the IFN-inducible RNA helicase, mda-5, and inhibit its activation of the IFN-beta promoter.

          Most paramyxoviruses circumvent the IFN response by blocking IFN signaling and limiting the production of IFN by virus-infected cells. Here we report that the highly conserved cysteine-rich C-terminal domain of the V proteins of a wide variety of paramyxoviruses binds melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (mda-5) product. mda-5 is an IFN-inducible host cell DExD/H box helicase that contains a caspase recruitment domain at its N terminus. Overexpression of mda-5 stimulated the basal activity of the IFN-beta promoter in reporter gene assays and significantly enhanced the activation of the IFN-beta promoter by intracellular dsRNA. Both these activities were repressed by coexpression of the V proteins of simian virus 5, human parainfluenza virus 2, mumps virus, Sendai virus, and Hendra virus. Similar results to the reporter assays were obtained by measuring IFN production. Inhibition of mda-5 by RNA interference or by dominant interfering forms of mda-5 significantly inhibited the activation of the IFN-beta promoter by dsRNA. It thus appears that mda-5 plays a central role in an intracellular signal transduction pathway that can lead to the activation of the IFN-beta promoter, and that the V proteins of paramyxoviruses interact with mda-5 to block its activity.
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            Production, concentration and titration of pseudotyped HIV-1-based lentiviral vectors.

            Over the past decade, lentiviral vectors have emerged as powerful tools for transgene delivery. The use of lentiviral vectors has become commonplace and applications in the fields of neuroscience, hematology, developmental biology, stem cell biology and transgenesis are rapidly emerging. Also, lentiviral vectors are at present being explored in the context of human clinical trials. Here we describe improved protocols to generate highly concentrated lentiviral vector pseudotypes involving different envelope glycoproteins. In this protocol, vector stocks are prepared by transient transfection using standard cell culture media or serum-free media. Such stocks are then concentrated by ultracentrifugation and/or ion exchange chromatography, or by precipitation using polyethylene glycol 6000, resulting in vector titers of up to 10(10) transducing units per milliliter and above. We also provide reliable real-time PCR protocols to titrate lentiviral vectors based on proviral DNA copies present in genomic DNA extracted from transduced cells or on vector RNA. These production/concentration methods result in high-titer vector preparations that show reduced toxicity compared with lentiviral vectors produced using standard protocols involving ultracentrifugation-based methods. The vector production and titration protocol described here can be completed within 8 d.
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              • Record: found
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              At the heart of the chromosome: SMC proteins in action.

              Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) proteins are ubiquitous in organisms from bacteria to humans, and function as core components of the condensin and cohesin complexes in eukaryotes. SMC proteins adopt a V-shaped structure with two long arms, each of which has an ATP-binding head domain at the distal end. It is important to understand how these uniquely designed protein machines interact with DNA strands and how such interactions are modulated by the ATP-binding and -hydrolysis cycle. An emerging idea is that SMC proteins use a diverse array of intramolecular and intermolecular protein-protein interactions to actively fold, tether and manipulate DNA strands.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature
                Nature
                1476-4687
                0028-0836
                Mar 17 2016
                : 531
                : 7594
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine, University Medical Centre (C.M.U.), Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.
                [2 ] CRCL, INSERM U1052, CNRS 5286, Université de Lyon, 151, Cours A Thomas, 69424 Lyon Cedex, France.
                [3 ] Gilead Sciences, Inc., 333 Lakeside Drive, Foster City, California 94404, USA.
                Article
                nature17170
                10.1038/nature17170
                26983541
                a0fe60d9-d395-4513-a130-c56108e2a779

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