Based on extensive herbarium, field, botanical illustration, and molecular phylogenetic research, five genera and eight species are recognised for the Neotropical Haemodoraceae . New taxa include Cubanicula Hopper et al., Xiphidium pontederiiflorum M.Pell. et al. and Schiekia timida M.Pell. et al. Two new combinations are made, Cubanicula xanthorrhizos (C.Wright ex Griseb.) Hopper et al. and Schiekia silvestris (Maas & Stoel) Hopper et al. We also correct the author citation for Xiphidium , provide the necessary typifications for several names and present an updated identification key, comments, and photo plates for all species. Finally, we provide high-quality illustrations for most of the recognised species and their diagnostic characters.