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      Glucose Metabolism In Vivo in Four Commonly Used Inbred Mouse Strains

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          OBJECTIVE—To characterize differences in whole-body glucose metabolism between commonly used inbred mouse strains.

          RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic (∼8.5 mmol/l) and -hypoglycemic (∼3.0 mmol/l) clamps were done in catheterized, 5-h-fasted mice to assess insulin action and hypoglycemic counter-regulatory responsiveness. Hyperglycemic clamps (∼15 mmol/l) were done to assess insulin secretion and compared with results in perifused islets.

          RESULTS—Insulin action and hypoglycemic counter-regulatory and insulin secretory phenotypes varied considerably in four inbred mouse strains. In vivo insulin secretion was greatest in 129X1/Sv mice, but the counter-regulatory response to hypoglycemia was blunted. FVB/N mice in vivo showed no increase in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, relative hepatic insulin resistance, and the highest counter-regulatory response to hypoglycemia. In DBA/2 mice, insulin action was lowest among the strains, and islets isolated had the greatest glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vitro. In C57BL/6 mice, in vivo physiological responses to hyperinsulinemia at euglycemia and hypoglycemia were intermediate relative to other strains. Insulin secretion by C57BL/6 mice was similar to that in other strains in contrast to the blunted glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from isolated islets.

          CONCLUSIONS—Strain-dependent differences exist in four inbred mouse strains frequently used for genetic manipulation and study of glucose metabolism. These results are important for selecting inbred mice to study glucose metabolism and for interpreting and designing experiments.

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          Most cited references 48

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          Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index: a simple, accurate method for assessing insulin sensitivity in humans.

           S Nambi,  K Mather,  A. Katz (2000)
          Insulin resistance plays an important role in the pathophysiology of diabetes and is associated with obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors. The "gold standard" glucose clamp and minimal model analysis are two established methods for determining insulin sensitivity in vivo, but neither is easily implemented in large studies. Thus, it is of interest to develop a simple, accurate method for assessing insulin sensitivity that is useful for clinical investigations. We performed both hyperinsulinemic isoglycemic glucose clamp and insulin-modified frequently sampled iv glucose tolerance tests on 28 nonobese, 13 obese, and 15 type 2 diabetic subjects. We obtained correlations between indexes of insulin sensitivity from glucose clamp studies (SI(Clamp)) and minimal model analysis (SI(MM)) that were comparable to previous reports (r = 0.57). We performed a sensitivity analysis on our data and discovered that physiological steady state values [i.e. fasting insulin (I(0)) and glucose (G(0))] contain critical information about insulin sensitivity. We defined a quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI = 1/[log(I(0)) + log(G(0))]) that has substantially better correlation with SI(Clamp) (r = 0.78) than the correlation we observed between SI(MM) and SI(Clamp). Moreover, we observed a comparable overall correlation between QUICKI and SI(Clamp) in a totally independent group of 21 obese and 14 nonobese subjects from another institution. We conclude that QUICKI is an index of insulin sensitivity obtained from a fasting blood sample that may be useful for clinical research.
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            Oxidative stress promotes pathologic polyploidization in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

            Polyploidization is one of the most dramatic changes that can occur in the genome. In the liver, physiological polyploidization events occur during both liver development and throughout adult life. Here, we determined that a pathological polyploidization takes place in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a widespread hepatic metabolic disorder that is believed to be a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In murine models of NAFLD, the parenchyma of fatty livers displayed alterations of the polyploidization process, including the presence of a large proportion of highly polyploid mononuclear cells, which are rarely observed in normal hepatic parenchyma. Biopsies from patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) revealed the presence of alterations in hepatocyte ploidy compared with tissue from control individuals. Hepatocytes from NAFLD mice revealed that progression through the S/G2 phases of the cell cycle was inefficient. This alteration was associated with activation of a G2/M DNA damage checkpoint, which prevented activation of the cyclin B1/CDK1 complex. Furthermore, we determined that oxidative stress promotes the appearance of highly polyploid cells, and antioxidant-treated NAFLD hepatocytes resumed normal cell division and returned to a physiological state of polyploidy. Collectively, these findings indicate that oxidative stress promotes pathological polyploidization and suggest that this is an early event in NAFLD that may contribute to HCC development.
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              A genetic and physiological study of impaired glucose homeostasis control in C57BL/6J mice.

              C57BL/6J mice exhibit impaired glucose tolerance. The aims of this study were to map the genetic loci underlying this phenotype, to further characterise the physiological defects and to identify candidate genes. Glucose tolerance was measured in an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and genetic determinants mapped in an F2 intercross. Insulin sensitivity was measured by injecting insulin and following glucose disposal from the plasma. To measure beta cell function, insulin secretion and electrophysiological studies were carried out on isolated islets. Candidate genes were investigated by sequencing and quantitative RNA analysis. C57BL/6J mice showed normal insulin sensitivity and impaired insulin secretion. In beta cells, glucose did not stimulate a rise in intracellular calcium and its ability to close KATP channels was impaired. We identified three genetic loci responsible for the impaired glucose tolerance. Nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (Nnt) lies within one locus and is a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proton pump. Expression of Nnt is more than sevenfold and fivefold lower respectively in C57BL/6J liver and islets. There is a missense mutation in exon 1 and a multi-exon deletion in the C57BL/6J gene. Glucokinase lies within the Gluchos2 locus and shows reduced enzyme activity in liver. The C57BL/6J mouse strain exhibits plasma glucose intolerance reminiscent of human type 2 diabetes. Our data suggest a defect in beta cell glucose metabolism that results in reduced electrical activity and insulin secretion. We have identified three loci that are responsible for the inherited impaired plasma glucose tolerance and identified a novel candidate gene for contribution to glucose intolerance through reduced beta cell activity.

                Author and article information

                [1]Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee
                [2]Vanderbilt University–NIH Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee
                [3]Department of Medicine, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee
                [4]Departments of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina
                [5]VA Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, Tennessee
                Author notes

                Corresponding author: Eric Berglund,

                American Diabetes Association
                July 2008
                : 57
                : 7
                : 1790-1799
                Copyright © 2008, American Diabetes Association

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