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      Factors contributing to non-compliance among diabetics attending primary health centers in the Al Hasa district of Saudi Arabia

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          Abstract

          Purpose:

          The purpose of the study was to measure the rate of non-compliance and the factors contributing to non-compliance among the diabetic patients in the Al Hasa region of Saudi Arabia.

          Materials and Methods:

          A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Al Hasa region during the period of June 2010 to June 2011. Random sampling was carried out for the selection of 535 diabetic patients from three chronic disease centers in different parts of Al Hasa. The data were collected by means of interviewing questionnaires and file records. Any patient who had been prescribed optimum treatment and was properly advised on diet and exercise for his / her diabetes, but did not follow the medical advice, with Hb1AC of more than 7% at the time of interview, was considered as non-compliant.

          Results:

          The overall prevalence of therapeutic non-compliance of the participants was 67.9% (n = 318, 95% CI 63.59 – 72.02%). The non-compliance of males (69.34%) was higher than females (65.45%, P = .003). The non-compliance among the urban participants was significantly higher than (71.04 vs. 60.15%, P = .023) in the rural participants. There was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence rate of non-compliance among the participants with different levels of education. Factors found to be significantly associated with non-compliance on bi-variate analysis were: female gender (OR = 1.90, CI =1.32-4.57),level of education (Illiteracy) (OR = 5.27, CI = 4.63 – 7.19), urban population (OR =5.22, CI= 3.65 – 8.22), irregularity of the follow-up (OR = 8.41, CI = 4.90 – 11.92), non-adherence to drug prescription (OR = 4.55 , CI = 3.54 – 5.56), non-adherence to exercise regimen (OR = 5.55, CI = 4.2 6 – 6.), insulin (OR = 1.29, CI = .71 – 1.87), and insulin with oral Metformin (OR = 1.20, CI = .65 – 1.75).

          Conclusion:

          The findings indicate that there is a high rate of non-compliance among the diabetes patients in the Al Hasa region of Saudi Arabia and there is a definite need for improvement in the healthcare system, health education, and training of diabetic patients.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Factors affecting therapeutic compliance: A review from the patient’s perspective

          Objective To explore and evaluate the most common factors causing therapeutic non-compliance. Methods A qualitative review was undertaken by a literature search of the Medline database from 1970 to 2005 to identify studies evaluating the factors contributing to therapeutic non-compliance. Results A total of 102 articles was retrieved and used in the review from the 2095 articles identified by the literature review process. From the literature review, it would appear that the definition of therapeutic compliance is adequately resolved. The preliminary evaluation revealed a number of factors that contributed to therapeutic non-compliance. These factors could be categorized to patient-centered factors, therapy-related factors, social and economic factors, healthcare system factors, and disease factors. For some of these factors, the impact on compliance was not unequivocal, but for other factors, the impact was inconsistent and contradictory. Conclusion There are numerous studies on therapeutic noncompliance over the years. The factors related to compliance may be better categorized as “soft” and “hard” factors as the approach in countering their effects may differ. The review also highlights that the interaction of the various factors has not been studied systematically. Future studies need to address this interaction issue, as this may be crucial to reducing the level of non-compliance in general, and to enhancing the possibility of achieving the desired healthcare outcomes.
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            Adherence to prescribed oral hypoglycaemic medication in a population of patients with Type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study.

            To evaluate the patterns and predictors of adherence in all patients with Type 2 diabetes in the community receiving treatment with a single oral hypoglycaemic drug. In particular, to test the hypothesis that one tablet per day is associated with better adherence than more than one. The study design was a retrospective cohort study set in the Tayside region of Scotland (population approx. 400 000). Participants were residents of Tayside from 1 January 1993 until 31 December 1995 with at least 12 months of prescriptions of oral hypoglycaemic drugs (OHDs). The main outcome measures were adherence indices for sulphonylureas and metformin separately, adjusting for prescribing while hospitalized. Of the total 2920 subjects identified, adequate adherence (> or = 90%) was found in 31% of those prescribed sulphonylureas alone (n = 1329, median adherence = 300 days per year), and in 34% of those prescribed metformin alone (n = 528, median = 302 days per year). There were significant linear trends of poorer adherence with each increase in the daily number of tablets taken (p = 0.001) and increase in co-medication (p = 0.0001) for sulphonylureas alone after adjustment for other factors. In the community only one in three with Type 2 diabetes had adequate adherence to OHDs. One tablet per day administration was associated with greater adherence than multiple tablets. Poor adherence is a major obstacle to the benefit of complex drug regimens in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes.
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              Adherence to therapy with oral antineoplastic agents.

              With the rise in availability and increasing use of oral anticancer agents, concerns about adherence to prescribed regimens will become an increasingly important issue in oncology. Few published studies have focused on adherence to oral antineoplastic therapy, in part because the vast majority of chemotherapy is delivered intravenously in physicians' offices or hospitals. In this article, we review current knowledge of adherence behavior with regard to oral medications in general, including factors associated with adherence and methods for measuring adherence. We also review published studies of adherence to oral antineoplastic agents in adult and pediatric populations and adherence issues in cancer prevention. The available evidence reveals that patient adherence to oral chemotherapy recommendations is variable and not easily predicted. Adherence rates ranging from less than 20% to 100% have been reported, and certain populations, such as adolescents, pose particular challenges. Future efforts should focus on improving measurement and prediction of adherence and on developing interventions to improve adherence for both patients in clinical trials and patients being treated outside of the research setting. Assessment of adherence among individuals with cancer and implementation of interventions in situations of poor adherence should improve clinical outcomes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Family Community Med
                J Family Community Med
                JFCM
                Journal of Family and Community Medicine
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                2230-8229
                2229-340X
                Jan-Apr 2012
                : 19
                : 1
                : 26-32
                Affiliations
                Department of Community Ophthalmology, Al Omran Primary Health Care Center, Al Hasa, Saudi Arabia
                [1 ] Department of Community Ophthalmology, PHC Affairs, Health Directorate, Al Hasa, Saudi Arabia
                [2 ] Department of Community Ophthalmology, Faculty of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Al Hasa, Saudi Arabia
                [3 ] Department of Community Ophthalmology, King Fahad Hospital, Al Hasa, Saudi Arabia
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Ataur R. Khan, Department of Ophthalmology, Omran Health Center, Al Omran, Al Hasa, 31982, Saudi Arabia. E-mail: tanyaata@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                JFCM-19-26
                10.4103/2230-8229.94008
                3326767
                22518355
                Copyright: © Journal of Family and Community Medicine

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Original Article

                Health & Social care

                diabetes, hb1ac, noncompliance

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