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      Five-year retrospective epidemiological survey of anaerobic bacteraemia in a University Hospital and Review of the Literature

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          Abstract

          In spite of the developments in microbiological methods, blood cultures remain the cornerstone for the diagnosis of bacteraemia. Classically, minimum of two bottles are collected on a routine basis: an aerobic bottle, allowing preferential growth of aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms, and an anaerobic bottle, providing suitable environment for strict anaerobic bacteria. Recent reports have documented a decrease in anaerobic bacteraemias and have questioned the need for routine anaerobic blood cultures. Bacteraemia due to anaerobic organisms occurs in 0.5–12% of blood cultures worldwide; however, recent studies from Europe and the USA presented inconsistent data regarding the prevalence of anaerobic bacteraemias between 1993 and 2006.The aims of this retrospective survey were to determine the prevalence of bacteraemias due to anaerobic bacteria and evaluate the importance of anaerobic blood cultures in a university hospital in Szeged, Hungary. We examined the occurrence of bacteraemias due to anaerobic bacteria during a 5-year period, from January 2005 to 2009, in order to identify current trends of anaerobic bacteraemias in our university.

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          Most cited references36

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          Epidemiology and outcome of nosocomial and community-onset bloodstream infection.

          We performed a prospective study of bloodstream infection to determine factors independently associated with mortality. Between February 1999 and July 2000, 929 consecutive episodes of bloodstream infection at two tertiary care centers were studied. An ICD-9-based Charlson Index was used to adjust for underlying illness. Crude mortality was 24% (14% for community-onset versus 34% for nosocomial bloodstream infections). Mortality attributed to the bloodstream infection was 17% overall (10% for community-onset versus 23% for nosocomial bloodstream infections). Multivariate logistic regression revealed the independent associations with in-hospital mortality to be as follows: nosocomial acquisition (odds ratio [OR] 2.6, P 20000, P = 0.003), presence of a central venous catheter (OR 2.0, P = 0.0002), and presence of anaerobic organism (OR 2.5, P = 0.04). Even after adjustments were made for underlying illness and length of stay, nosocomial status of bloodstream infection was strongly associated with increased total hospital charges (P < 0.0001). Although accounting for about half of all bloodstream infections, nosocomial bloodstream infections account for most of the mortality and costs associated with bloodstream infection.
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            Reemergence of anaerobic bacteremia.

            During 1974-1988, the incidence of anaerobic bacteremia at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) decreased. This trend occurred nationally, prompting calls for discontinuation of routine anaerobic blood cultures. However, recently, the sites of anaerobic infection have been shown not to be as predictable as once thought, and since 1993, the incidence of anaerobic bacteremia has increased significantly in our medical center. Records from the Mayo Clinic Division of Clinical Microbiology were used to tabulate the number of cases of anaerobic bacteremia in patients at the clinic for the 12-year period from 1993 through 2004. Medical records for patients with anaerobic bacteremia were reviewed from the periods of 1993-1994 and 2004 to identify differences between these 2 patient populations with different rates of bacteremia. The mean incidence of anaerobic bacteremias increased from 53 cases per year during 1993-1996 to 75 cases per year during 1997-2000 to 91 cases per year during 2001-2004 (an overall increase of 74%). The total number of cases of anaerobic bacteremia per 100,000 patient-days increased by 74% (P<.001). The number of anaerobic blood cultures per 1000 cultures performed increased by 30% (P=.002). Organisms from the Bacteroides fragilis group, other species of Bacteroides, and Clostridium species were most commonly isolated. Anaerobic bacteremia has reemerged as a significant clinical problem. Although there are probably multiple reasons for this change, the increasing number of patients with complex underlying diseases makes the clinical context for anaerobic infections less predictable than it once was. Anaerobic blood cultures should be routinely performed in medical centers with a patient population similar to ours.
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              Clinical significance and outcome of anaerobic bacteremia.

              We retrospectively studied the incidence of anaerobic bacteremia during 6 years (1991-1996) at Turku University Central Hospital (Turku, Finland). The clinical significance of a positive anaerobic blood culture, the effect of a positive culture on the choice of antimicrobial therapy, and the outcome for patients were evaluated. Cultures of blood from 81 patients yielded anaerobic bacteria (4% of all bacteremias). Anaerobic bacteremia was clinically significant in 57 patients (0.18 cases per 1,000 admissions). Only half (28) of these patients received appropriate and effective antimicrobial treatment before the results of blood cultures were reported; for 18 patients (32%), initially ineffective treatment was changed on the basis of the bacteriologic results, and for 11 patients (19%), the treatment was not changed. The mortality in these patient groups was 18%, 17%, and 55%, respectively. Empirical therapy may provide coverage for anaerobes in only half of the patients with anaerobic bacteremia, and failure to pay attention to the results of anaerobic blood cultures may have serious consequences for patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                1886
                122234
                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                1 June 2012
                13 June 2012
                : 2
                : 2 ( otherID: K022535X4502 )
                : 140-147
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] University of Szeged Institute of Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine Szeged Hungary
                [ 2 ] University of Szeged Institute of Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine Szeged H-6701 P.O. Box 427 Hungary
                Article
                6289G83706M321P6
                10.1556/eujmi.2.2012.2.7
                a10de90a-b330-4c70-a087-36bfae19d29e
                Categories
                Original Articles

                Medicine,Immunology,Health & Social care,Microbiology & Virology,Infectious disease & Microbiology
                blood culture,antibiotic resistance,anaerobic bacteraemia and prevalence,anaerobes

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