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      Monitoring Exercise-Induced Muscle Fatigue and Adaptations: Making Sense of Popular or Emerging Indices and Biomarkers


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          Regular exercise with the appropriate intensity and duration may improve an athlete’s physical capacities by targeting different performance determinants across the endurance–strength spectrum aiming to delay fatigue. The mechanisms of muscle fatigue depend on exercise intensity and duration and may range from substrate depletion to acidosis and product inhibition of adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) and glycolysis. Fatigue mechanisms have been studied in isolated muscles; single muscle fibers (intact or skinned) or at the level of filamentous or isolated motor proteins; with each approach contributing to our understanding of the fatigue phenomenon. In vivo methods for monitoring fatigue include the assessment of various functional indices supported by the use of biochemical markers including blood lactate levels and more recently redox markers. Blood lactate measurements; as an accompaniment of functional assessment; are extensively used for estimating the contribution of the anaerobic metabolism to energy expenditure and to help interpret an athlete’s resistance to fatigue during high intensity exercise. Monitoring of redox indices is gaining popularity in the applied sports performance setting; as oxidative stress is not only a fatigue agent which may play a role in the pathophysiology of overtraining syndrome; but also constitutes an important signaling pathway for training adaptations; thus reflecting training status. Careful planning of sampling and interpretation of blood biomarkers should be applied; especially given that their levels can fluctuate according to an athlete’s lifestyle and training histories.

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          Skeletal muscle: a brief review of structure and function.

          Skeletal muscle is one of the most dynamic and plastic tissues of the human body. In humans, skeletal muscle comprises approximately 40% of total body weight and contains 50-75% of all body proteins. In general, muscle mass depends on the balance between protein synthesis and degradation and both processes are sensitive to factors such as nutritional status, hormonal balance, physical activity/exercise, and injury or disease, among others. In this review, we discuss the various domains of muscle structure and function including its cytoskeletal architecture, excitation-contraction coupling, energy metabolism, and force and power generation. We will limit the discussion to human skeletal muscle and emphasize recent scientific literature on single muscle fibers.
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            Muscle fatigue: what, why and how it influences muscle function.

            Much is known about the physiological impairments that can cause muscle fatigue. It is known that fatigue can be caused by many different mechanisms, ranging from the accumulation of metabolites within muscle fibres to the generation of an inadequate motor command in the motor cortex, and that there is no global mechanism responsible for muscle fatigue. Rather, the mechanisms that cause fatigue are specific to the task being performed. The development of muscle fatigue is typically quantified as a decline in the maximal force or power capacity of muscle, which means that submaximal contractions can be sustained after the onset of muscle fatigue. There is even evidence that the duration of some sustained tasks is not limited by fatigue of the principal muscles. Here we review experimental approaches that focus on identifying the mechanisms that limit task failure rather than those that cause muscle fatigue. Selected comparisons of tasks, groups of individuals and interventions with the task-failure approach can provide insight into the rate-limiting adjustments that constrain muscle function during fatiguing contractions.
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              Role of oxidative carbonylation in protein quality control and senescence.

              Proteins can become modified by a large number of reactions involving reactive oxygen species. Among these reactions, carbonylation has attracted a great deal of attention due to its irreversible and unrepairable nature. Carbonylated proteins are marked for proteolysis by the proteasome and the Lon protease but can escape degradation and form high-molecular-weight aggregates that accumulate with age. Such carbonylated aggregates can become cytotoxic and have been associated with a large number of age-related disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and cancer. This review focuses on the generation of and defence against protein carbonyls and speculates on the potential role of carbonylation in protein quality control, cellular deterioration, and senescence.

                Author and article information

                Sports (Basel)
                Sports (Basel)
                26 November 2018
                December 2018
                : 6
                : 4
                : 153
                [1 ]Muscle Physiology and Mechanics Group, School of Physical Education and Sports Science, University of Thessaly, Trikala 42100, Greece; gtheofilidis@ 123456uth.gr
                [2 ]School of Physical Education and Sports Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Dafne 17237, Greece; gbogdanis@ 123456phed.uoa.gr
                [3 ]Human Performance Laboratory, School of Physical Education and Sports Science, University of Thessaly, Trikala 42100, Greece; y.koutedakis@ 123456uth.gr
                [4 ]Faculty of Arts, University of Wolverhampton, Walshall WS1 3BD, UK
                [5 ]Experimental Myology & Integrative Physiology Cluster, FSHW, Plymouth Marjon University, Plymouth PL6 8BH, UK
                Author notes
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                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 30 October 2018
                : 21 November 2018

                training adaptations,exercise induced muscle fatigue,fatigue index,fatigue agents,lactate monitoring,redox markers,muscle inflammation,oxidative stress monitoring


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