Bean leaf beetle (BLB) (Ootheca mutabilis) has emerged as an important bean pest in Uganda, leading to devastating crop losses. There is limited information on the population genetic structure of BLB despite its importance. In this study, novel microsatellite DNA markers and the partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) gene sequences were used to analyze the spatial population genetic structure, genetic differentiation and haplotype diversity of 86 O. mutabilis samples from 16 (districts) populations. We identified 19,356 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) (mono, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexa-nucleotides) of which 81 di, tri and tetra-nucleotides were selected for primer synthesis. Five highly polymorphic SSR markers (4-21 alleles, heterozygosity 0.59-0.84, polymorphic information content (PIC) 50.13-83.14%) were used for this study. Analyses of the 16 O. mutabilis populations with these five novel SSRs found nearly all the genetic variation occurring within populations and there was no evidence of genetic differentiation detected for both types of markers. Also, there was no evidence of isolation by distance between geographical and genetic distances for SSR data and mtCOI data except in one agro-ecological zone for mtCOI data. Bayesian clustering identified a signature of admixture that suggests genetic contributions from two hypothetical ancestral genetic lineages for both types of markers, and the minimum-spanning haplotype network showed low differentiation in minor haplotypes from the most common haplotype with the most common haplotype occurring in all the 16 districts. A lack of genetic differentiation indicates unrestricted migrations between populations. This information will contribute to the design of BLB control strategies.