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      Effects of embryo energy, egg size, and larval food supply on the development of asteroid echinoderms

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          Abstract

          Organisms have limited resources available to invest in reproduction, causing a trade‐off between the number and size of offspring. One consequence of this trade‐off is the evolution of disparate egg sizes and, by extension, developmental modes. In particular, echinoid echinoderms (sea urchins and sand dollars) have been widely used to experimentally manipulate how changes in egg size affect development. Here, we test the generality of the echinoid results by (a) using laser ablations of blastomeres to experimentally reduce embryo energy in the asteroid echinoderms (sea stars), Pisaster ochraceus and Asterias forbesi and (b) comparing naturally produced, variably sized eggs (1.7‐fold volume difference between large and small eggs) in A. forbesi. In P. ochraceus and A. forbesi, there were no significant differences between juveniles from both experimentally reduced embryos and naturally produced eggs of variable size. However, in both embryo reduction and egg size variation experiments, simultaneous reductions in larval food had a significant and large effect on larval and juvenile development. These results indicate that (a) food levels are more important than embryo energy or egg size in determining larval and juvenile quality in sea stars and (b) the relative importance of embryo energy or egg size to fundamental life history parameters (time to and size at metamorphosis) does not appear to be consistent within echinoderms.

          Abstract

          In two species of sea stars, exogenous food levels are more important than maternal investment in determining larval and juvenile quality. The relative importance of maternal investment to fundamental life history parameters (time to and size at metamorphosis) does not appear to be consistent within echinoderms.

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          Most cited references 54

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          Acquisition and Allocation of Resources: Their Influence on Variation in Life History Tactics

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            The adaptive significance of maternal effects

             T Mousseau (1998)
            Recently, the adaptive significance of maternal effects has been increasingly recognized. No longer are maternal effects relegated as simple `troublesome sources of environmental resemblance' that confound our ability to estimate accurately the genetic basis of traits of interest. Rather, it has become evident that many maternal effects have been shaped by the action of natural selection to act as a mechanism for adaptive phenotypic response to environmental heterogeneity. Consequently, maternal experience is translated into variation in offspring fitness.
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              Maternal Effects in Animal Ecology

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                jdallen@wm.edu
                Journal
                Ecol Evol
                Ecol Evol
                10.1002/(ISSN)2045-7758
                ECE3
                Ecology and Evolution
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                2045-7758
                08 July 2020
                July 2020
                : 10
                : 14 ( doiID: 10.1002/ece3.v10.14 )
                : 7839-7850
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Biology Department William & Mary Williamsburg Virginia USA
                [ 2 ] Department of Biology East Carolina University Greenville North Carolina USA
                [ 3 ] School of Biological Sciences Monash University Melbourne Vic. Australia
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence

                Jonathan D. Allen, Biology Department, William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187.

                Email: jdallen@ 123456wm.edu

                Article
                ECE36511
                10.1002/ece3.6511
                7391326
                © 2020 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 4, Pages: 12, Words: 9455
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: NSF Division of Environmental Biology
                Award ID: 1257039
                Categories
                Original Research
                Original Research
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                July 2020
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:5.8.6 mode:remove_FC converted:30.07.2020

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