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      The elevated preoperative platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio predicts poor prognosis in breast cancer patients

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          Abstract

          Background:

          The elevation of the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), an easily applicable blood test based on platelet and lymphocyte counts has been associated with poor prognosis in patients with different types of cancer. The present study was aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of the preoperative PLR in a large cohort of breast cancer patients.

          Methods:

          Data from 793 consecutive non-metastatic breast cancer patients, treated between 1999 and 2004, were evaluated retrospectively. The optimal cutoff values for the PLR were calculated using receiver operating curve analysis. Cancer-specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS) as well as distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were assessed using the Kaplan–Meier method. To evaluate the independent prognostic significance of PLR, multivariable Cox regression models were applied for all three different end points.

          Results:

          Univariable analysis revealed a significant association between the elevated preoperative PLR and CSS (hazard ratio (HR): 2.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.57–4.83, P<0.001) that remained statistically significant in multivariable analysis (HR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.03–4.02, P=0.042). An increased PLR was also significantly associated with decreased OS in univariable (HR: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.43–4.20, P=0.001) and in multivariable analysis (HR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.01–3.67, P=0.047). Furthermore, univariable analysis showed a significant impact of increased PLR on DMFS (HR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.18–3.44, P=0.010). Subgroup analysis revealed significant associations of the elevated PLR on the primary end point CSS for all breast cancer subtypes. This association retained its significance in multivariable analysis in patients with luminal B tumours (HR: 2.538, 95% CI: 1.043–6.177, P=0.040).

          Conclusions:

          In this study, we identified the preoperative PLR as an independent prognostic marker for survival in breast cancer patients. Independent validation of our findings is needed.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Prognostic and predictive value of the 21-gene recurrence score assay in postmenopausal women with node-positive, oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer on chemotherapy: a retrospective analysis of a randomised trial.

          The 21-gene recurrence score assay is prognostic for women with node-negative, oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer treated with tamoxifen. A low recurrence score predicts little benefit of chemotherapy. For node-positive breast cancer, we investigated whether the recurrence score was prognostic in women treated with tamoxifen alone and whether it identified those who might not benefit from anthracycline-based chemotherapy, despite higher risks of recurrence. The phase 3 trial SWOG-8814 for postmenopausal women with node-positive, oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer showed that chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and fluorouracil (CAF) before tamoxifen (CAF-T) added survival benefit to treatment with tamoxifen alone. Optional tumour banking yielded specimens for determination of recurrence score by RT-PCR. In this retrospective analysis, we assessed the effect of recurrence score on disease-free survival by treatment group (tamoxifen vs CAF-T) using Cox regression, adjusting for number of positive nodes. There were 367 specimens (40% of the 927 patients in the tamoxifen and CAF-T groups) with sufficient RNA for analysis (tamoxifen, n=148; CAF-T, n=219). The recurrence score was prognostic in the tamoxifen-alone group (p=0.006; hazard ratio [HR] 2.64, 95% CI 1.33-5.27, for a 50-point difference in recurrence score). There was no benefit of CAF in patients with a low recurrence score (score or =31; log-rank p=0.033; HR 0.59, 0.35-1.01), after adjustment for number of positive nodes. The recurrence score by treatment interaction was significant in the first 5 years (p=0.029), with no additional prediction beyond 5 years (p=0.58), although the cumulative benefit remained at 10 years. Results were similar for overall survival and breast-cancer-specific survival. The recurrence score is prognostic for tamoxifen-treated patients with positive nodes and predicts significant benefit of CAF in tumours with a high recurrence score. A low recurrence score identifies women who might not benefit from anthracycline-based chemotherapy, despite positive nodes. National Cancer Institute and Genomic Health. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            A comparison of inflammation-based prognostic scores in patients with cancer. A Glasgow Inflammation Outcome Study.

            Components of the systemic inflammatory response, combined to form inflammation-based prognostic scores (modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS), Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), Platelet Lymphocyte Ratio (PLR), Prognostic Index (PI), Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI)) have been associated with cancer specific survival. The aim of the present study was to compare the prognostic value of these scores. Patients (n=27,031) who had an incidental blood sample taken between 2000 and 2007 for C-reactive protein, albumin, white cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts, as well as a diagnosis of cancer (Scottish Cancer Registry) were identified. Of this group 8759 patients who had been sampled within two years following their cancer diagnosis were studied. On follow up, there were 5163 deaths of which 4417 (86%) were cancer deaths. The median time from blood sampling to diagnosis was 1.7 months. An elevated mGPS, NLR, PLR, PI and PNI were predictive of a reduced cancer specific survival independent of age, sex and deprivation and tumour site (all p<0.001). The area under the receiver operator curves was greatest for mGPS and PI. Specifically, in colorectal cancer, an elevated mGPS and PI were predictive of a reduced cancer specific survival independent of age, sex, deprivation and tumour stage (both p<0.001). The results of the present study show that systemic inflammation-based scores, in particular the mGPS and PI, have prognostic value in cancer independent of tumour site. Based on the present results and the existing validation literature, the mGPS should be included in the routine assessment of all patients with cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              • Article: not found

              Lymphopenia as a prognostic factor for overall survival in advanced carcinomas, sarcomas, and lymphomas.

              Lymphopenia is frequent in advanced cancers and predicts the toxicity of chemotherapy. Its effect on relapse and survival is uncertain. Its prognostic value for survival was analyzed in three databases of previously reported prospective multicenter studies: (a) FEC chemotherapy in metastatic breast carcinoma; (b) CYVADIC in advanced soft tissue sarcoma (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group 62791); and (c) prospective, consecutive phase III studies of aggressive diffuse large-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas conducted at Centre Léon Bérard between 1987 and 1993. Univariate and multivariate analyses of prognostic factors for survival were performed. The incidence of lymphopenia of 1, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients with international prognostic index (IPI) of > 0, and advanced soft tissue sarcoma and metastatic breast cancer patients with bone metastases. Inunivariate analysis, lymphopenia of <1,000/microL significantly correlated to overall survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer (median, 10 versus 14 mo; P < 0.0001), advanced soft tissue sarcoma (median, 5 versus 10 months; P < 0.01), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (median, 11 versus 94 months; P < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis (Cox model), lymphopenia was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in metastatic breast cancer [RR (relative risk), 1.8; 95% CI (confidence interval), 1.3-2.4] along with liver metastases and PS; in advanced soft tissue sarcoma (RR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.0-2.1) along with liver metastases, lung metastases, and PS; and in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (RR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.03-2.1) along with IPI. Our findings show that lymphopenia is an independent prognostic factor for overall and progression-free survival in several cancers.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Br J Cancer
                Br. J. Cancer
                British Journal of Cancer
                Nature Publishing Group
                0007-0920
                1532-1827
                13 May 2014
                27 March 2014
                : 110
                : 10
                : 2524-2530
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical University of Graz , Auenbruggerplatz 32, 8036 Graz, Austria
                [2 ]Division of Internal Medicine, Outpatient Department Graz , Graz, Austria
                [3 ]Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Graz , Graz, Austria
                [4 ]Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center , Houston, TX, USA
                [5 ]Division of Clinical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Medical University of Graz , Graz, Austria
                Author notes
                [6]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                bjc2014163
                10.1038/bjc.2014.163
                4021515
                24675383
                Copyright © 2014 Cancer Research UK

                From twelve months after its original publication, this work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

                Categories
                Molecular Diagnostics

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