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      Transposition of native chromatin for fast and sensitive epigenomic profiling of open chromatin, DNA-binding proteins and nucleosome position

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          Abstract

          We describe an assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq), based on direct in vitro transposition of sequencing adaptors into native chromatin, as a rapid and sensitive method for integrative epigenomic analysis. ATAC-seq captures open chromatin sites using a simple two-step protocol with 500-50,000 cells and reveals the interplay between genomic locations of open chromatin, DNA-binding proteins, individual nucleosomes and chromatin compaction at nucleotide resolution. We discovered classes of DNA-binding factors that strictly avoided, could tolerate or tended to overlap with nucleosomes. Using ATAC-seq maps of human CD4(+) T cells from a proband obtained on consecutive days, we demonstrated the feasibility of analyzing an individual's epigenome on a timescale compatible with clinical decision-making.

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          Most cited references26

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          High-resolution mapping and characterization of open chromatin across the genome.

          Mapping DNase I hypersensitive (HS) sites is an accurate method of identifying the location of genetic regulatory elements, including promoters, enhancers, silencers, insulators, and locus control regions. We employed high-throughput sequencing and whole-genome tiled array strategies to identify DNase I HS sites within human primary CD4+ T cells. Combining these two technologies, we have created a comprehensive and accurate genome-wide open chromatin map. Surprisingly, only 16%-21% of the identified 94,925 DNase I HS sites are found in promoters or first exons of known genes, but nearly half of the most open sites are in these regions. In conjunction with expression, motif, and chromatin immunoprecipitation data, we find evidence of cell-type-specific characteristics, including the ability to identify transcription start sites and locations of different chromatin marks utilized in these cells. In addition, and unexpectedly, our analyses have uncovered detailed features of nucleosome structure.
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            Single-cell transcriptomics reveals bimodality in expression and splicing in immune cells

            Recent molecular studies have revealed that, even when derived from a seemingly homogenous population, individual cells can exhibit substantial differences in gene expression, protein levels, and phenotypic output 1–5 , with important functional consequences 4,5 . Existing studies of cellular heterogeneity, however, have typically measured only a few pre-selected RNAs 1,2 or proteins 5,6 simultaneously because genomic profiling methods 3 could not be applied to single cells until very recently 7–10 . Here, we use single-cell RNA-Seq to investigate heterogeneity in the response of bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We find extensive, and previously unobserved, bimodal variation in mRNA abundance and splicing patterns, which we validate by RNA-fluorescence in situ hybridization (RNA-FISH) for select transcripts. In particular, hundreds of key immune genes are bimodally expressed across cells, surprisingly even for genes that are very highly expressed at the population average. Moreover, splicing patterns demonstrate previously unobserved levels of heterogeneity between cells. Some of the observed bimodality can be attributed to closely related, yet distinct, known maturity states of BMDCs; other portions reflect differences in the usage of key regulatory circuits. For example, we identify a module of 137 highly variable, yet co-regulated, antiviral response genes. Using cells from knockout mice, we show that variability in this module may be propagated through an interferon feedback circuit involving the transcriptional regulators Stat2 and Irf7. Our study demonstrates the power and promise of single-cell genomics in uncovering functional diversity between cells and in deciphering cell states and circuits.
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              Chromatin structure: a repeating unit of histones and DNA.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Methods
                Nat Methods
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1548-7091
                1548-7105
                December 2013
                October 6 2013
                December 2013
                : 10
                : 12
                : 1213-1218
                Article
                10.1038/nmeth.2688
                3959825
                24097267
                a12e22b2-34a4-460c-a80c-ae657248dd52
                © 2013

                http://www.springer.com/tdm


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