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      Adhesive wear mechanisms uncovered by atomistic simulations


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          In this review, we discuss our recent advances in modeling adhesive wear mechanisms using coarse-grained atomistic simulations. In particular, we present how a model pair potential reveals the transition from ductile shearing of an asperity to the formation of a debris particle. This transition occurs at a critical junction size, which determines the particle size at its birth. Atomistic simulations also reveal that for nearby asperities, crack shielding mechanisms result in a wear volume proportional to an effective area larger than the real contact area. As the density of microcontacts increases with load, we propose this crack shielding mechanism as a key to understand the transition from mild to severe wear. We conclude with open questions and a road map to incorporate these findings in mesoscale continuum models. Because these mesoscale models allow an accurate statistical representation of rough surfaces, they provide a simple means to interpret classical phenomenological wear models and wear coefficients from physics-based principles.

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          The indentation load-displacement behavior of six materials tested with a Berkovich indenter has been carefully documented to establish an improved method for determining hardness and elastic modulus from indentation load-displacement data. The materials included fused silica, soda–lime glass, and single crystals of aluminum, tungsten, quartz, and sapphire. It is shown that the load–displacement curves during unloading in these materials are not linear, even in the initial stages, thereby suggesting that the flat punch approximation used so often in the analysis of unloading data is not entirely adequate. An analysis technique is presented that accounts for the curvature in the unloading data and provides a physically justifiable procedure for determining the depth which should be used in conjunction with the indenter shape function to establish the contact area at peak load. The hardnesses and elastic moduli of the six materials are computed using the analysis procedure and compared with values determined by independent means to assess the accuracy of the method. The results show that with good technique, moduli can be measured to within 5%.
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                Author and article information

                Tsinghua Science and Technology
                Tsinghua University Press (Xueyuan Building, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China )
                05 September 2018
                : 06
                : 03
                : 245-259 (pp. )
                [ 1 ] Civil Engineering Department, Materials Science Department, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne 1015, Switzerland
                [ 2 ] Department of Engineering - Mechanical Engineering, Aarhus Universitet, Aarhus 8000, Denmark
                Author notes
                * Corresponding author: Jean-François MOLINARI, E-mail: jean-francois.molinari@ 123456epfl.ch

                Jean-François MOLINARI. He is the director of the Computational Solid Mechanics Laboratory (LSMS) at the École Polytechnique Fédérale of Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland. He graduated in 1997 with a MS degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Technology of Compiègne, France. He also obtained a MS degree in aeronautics in 1997 from the California Institute of Technology, USA, and graduated with a PhD degree from Caltech in 2001. He then held professor positions at the Johns Hopkins University, USA, and ENS Cachan, France, before joining EPFL. His research interests cover multiscale modeling with applications to fracture mechanics and tribology.

                Ramin AGHABABAEI. He obtained his PhD degree in mechanical engineering from National University of Singapore (NUS) in 2012. He joined the Computational Solid Mechanics Laboratory (LSMS) at École Polytechnique Fédérale of Lausanne (EPFL) as a post-doctoral fellow. In September 2017, he joined the Engineering Department of Aarhus University in Denmark, as a tenure-track assistant professor, and the principle investigator of the surface mechanics group (SMG). The research interest of his group is to understand the underlying mechanics and physics of failure in materials surfaces at different scales with application to tribology and manufacturing.

                Tobias BRINK. He received his doctoral degree in materials science from the Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany. He is currently working at the Computational Solid Mechanics Laboratory (LSMS) at the École Polytechnique Fédérale of Lausanne (EPFL) in Switzerland on atomistic simulations of wear at the asperity level. In this context, his research interests include working towards understanding nano-scaled wear mechanisms and how they result in macroscopic wear relations.

                Lucas FRÉROT. He holds a bachelor of science and a master of science in civil engineering from the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), with a focus on computational methods in the modeling of solids and structures. He joined the Computational Solid Mechanics Laboratory at EPFL in 2015 as a PhD student to conduct research on the elasto-plastic contact of solids with rough surfaces, with application to the study of friction and wear.

                Enrico MILANESE. He trained as a civil engineer at the University of Padua, Italy, where he received both his bachelor and master degrees. He later investigated fracture avalanche behaviour in porous media at the same university. Since 2016 he is pursuing a PhD at the Computational Solid Mechanics Laboratory at the École Polytechnique Fédérale of Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland. His current research focusses on surface roughness and adhesive wear.


                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 0, References: 72, Pages: 15
                Review Article

                Materials technology,Materials properties,Thin films & surfaces,Mechanical engineering
                molecular dynamics,continuum mechanics,adhesive wear


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