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      Health Benefits of Heat-Killed (Tyndallized) Probiotics: An Overview

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          Abstract

          Nowadays, the oral use of probiotics is widespread. However, the safety profile with the use of live probiotics is still a matter of debate. Main risks include: Cases of systemic infections due to translocation, particularly in vulnerable patients and pediatric populations; acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes; or interference with gut colonization in neonates. To avoid these risks, there is an increasing interest in non-viable microorganisms or microbial cell extracts to be used as probiotics, mainly heat-killed (including tyndallized) probiotic bacteria (lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria). Heat-treated probiotic cells, cell-free supernatants, and purified key components are able to confer beneficial effects, mainly immunomodulatory effects, protection against enteropathogens, and maintenance of intestinal barrier integrity. At the clinical level, products containing tyndallized probiotic strains have had a role in gastrointestinal diseases, including bloating and infantile coli—in combination with mucosal protectors—and diarrhea. Heat-inactivated probiotics could also have a role in the management of dermatological or respiratory allergic diseases. The reviewed data indicate that heat-killed bacteria or their fractions or purified components have key probiotic effects, with advantages versus live probiotics (mainly their safety profile), positioning them as interesting strategies for the management of common prevalent conditions in a wide variety of patients´ characteristics.

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          Most cited references 156

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          The NLRP3 inflammasome protects against loss of epithelial integrity and mortality during experimental colitis.

          Decreased expression of the Nlrp3 protein is associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease. However, the role of Nlrp3 in colitis has not been characterized. Nlrp3 interacts with the adaptor protein ASC to activate caspase-1 in inflammasomes, which are protein complexes responsible for the maturation and secretion of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-18. Here, we showed that mice deficient for Nlrp3 or ASC and caspase-1 were highly susceptible to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Defective inflammasome activation led to loss of epithelial integrity, resulting in systemic dispersion of commensal bacteria, massive leukocyte infiltration, and increased chemokine production in the colon. This process was a consequence of a decrease in IL-18 in mice lacking components of the Nlrp3 inflammasome, resulting in higher mortality rates. Thus, the Nlrp3 inflammasome is critically involved in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and protection against colitis.
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            Probiotics and the gut microbiota in intestinal health and disease.

            The use of probiotics is increasing in popularity for both the prevention and treatment of a variety of diseases. While a growing number of well-conducted, prospective, randomized, controlled, clinical trials are emerging and investigations of underlying mechanisms of action are being undertaken, questions remain with respect to the specific immune and physiological effects of probiotics in health and disease. This Review considers recent advances in clinical trials of probiotics for intestinal disorders in both adult and pediatric populations. An overview of recent in vitro and in vivo research related to potential mechanisms of action of various probiotic formulations is also considered.
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              Probiotic Mechanisms of Action

              Probiotics are live microorganisms that provide health benefits to the host when ingested in adequate amounts. The strains most frequently used as probiotics include lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. Probiotics have demonstrated significant potential as therapeutic options for a variety of diseases, but the mechanisms responsible for these effects have not been fully elucidated yet. Several important mechanisms underlying the antagonistic effects of probiotics on various microorganisms include the following: modification of the gut microbiota, competitive adherence to the mucosa and epithelium, strengthening of the gut epithelial barrier and modulation of the immune system to convey an advantage to the host. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that probiotics communicate with the host by pattern recognition receptors, such as toll-like receptors and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein-like receptors, which modulate key signaling pathways, such as nuclear factor-ĸB and mitogen-activated protein kinase, to enhance or suppress activation and influence downstream pathways. This recognition is crucial for eliciting measured antimicrobial responses with minimal inflammatory tissue damage. A clear understanding of these mechanisms will allow for appropriate probiotic strain selection for specific applications and may uncover novel probiotic functions. The goal of this systematic review was to explore probiotic modes of action focusing on how gut microbes influence the host.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                23 May 2019
                May 2019
                : 20
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Microbiology Section, Department of Biology, Healthcare and Environment, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Av Joan XXIII, 27-31, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; mberlanga@ 123456ub.edu (M.B.); davidminyana@ 123456ub.edu (D.M.-G.)
                [2 ]Institut de Recerca en Nutrició i Seguretat Alimentària de la UB (INSA-UB), Universitat de Barcelona, 08921 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: npique@ 123456ub.edu ; Tel.: +34-934024496; Fax: +34-934024498
                Article
                ijms-20-02534
                10.3390/ijms20102534
                6566317
                31126033
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                Molecular biology

                probiotics, heat-killed, tyndallized, lactobacillus, bifidobacterium, immunomodulatory

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