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      Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Using a Nerve Conduit with Olfactory Ensheathing Cells in a Rat Model

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          Most cited references 39

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          Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA) as Biodegradable Controlled Drug Delivery Carrier.

          In past two decades poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) has been among the most attractive polymeric candidates used to fabricate devices for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. PLGA is biocompatible and biodegradable, exhibits a wide range of erosion times, has tunable mechanical properties and most importantly, is a FDA approved polymer. In particular, PLGA has been extensively studied for the development of devices for controlled delivery of small molecule drugs, proteins and other macromolecules in commercial use and in research. This manuscript describes the various fabrication techniques for these devices and the factors affecting their degradation and drug release.
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            A cartilage ECM-derived 3-D porous acellular matrix scaffold for in vivo cartilage tissue engineering with PKH26-labeled chondrogenic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

            We developed a natural, acellular, 3-D interconnected porous scaffold derived from cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM). Human cartilage was physically shattered, then decellularized sequentially with use of hypotonic buffer, TritonX-100, and a nuclease solution and made into a suspension. The scaffold was fabricated by simple freeze-drying and cross-linking techniques. On histology, scaffolds showed most of the ECM components after removal of the cell fragments, and scanning electron microscopy revealed a 3-D interconnected porous structure. Cellular viability assay revealed no cytotoxic effects. In vitro study showed that the novel scaffold could provide a suitable 3-D environment to support the adheration, proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to chondrocytes in culture with chondrogenic medium after 21 days. Chondrogenically induced BMSCs labeled with fluorescent dye PKH26 were then grown on scaffolds and implanted subcutaneously into nude mice. Four weeks later, cartilage-like tissue formed, with positive staining for Safranin O, tuoluidine blue and collagen II. Cells in the samples seemed to confirm that they originated from the labeled BMSCs, as confirmed by in vivo fluorescent imaging and immunofluorescence examination. In conclusion, the cartilage ECM-derived porous scaffold shows potential as biomaterial for cartilage tissue engineering, and PKH26 fluorescent labeling and in vivo fluorescent imaging can be useful for cell tracking and analyzing cell-scaffold constructs in vivo.
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              Transplantation of Schwann cells and/or olfactory ensheathing glia into the contused spinal cord: Survival, migration, axon association, and functional recovery.

              Schwann cells (SCs) and olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG) have shown promise for spinal cord injury repair. We sought their in vivo identification following transplantation into the contused adult rat spinal cord at 1 week post-injury by: (i) DNA in situ hybridization (ISH) with a Y-chromosome specific probe to identify male transplants in female rats and (ii) lentiviral vector-mediated expression of EGFP. Survival, migration, and axon-glia association were quantified from 3 days to 9 weeks post-transplantation. At 3 weeks after transplantation into the lesion, a 60-90% loss of grafted cells was observed. OEG-only grafts survived very poorly within the lesion (<5%); injection outside the lesion led to a 60% survival rate, implying that the injury milieu was hostile to transplanted cells and or prevented their proliferation. At later times post-grafting, p75(+)/EGFP(-) cells in the lesion outnumbered EGFP(+) cells in all paradigms, evidence of significant host SC infiltration. SCs and OEG injected into the injury failed to migrate from the lesion. Injection of OEG outside of the injury resulted in their migration into the SC-injected injury site, not via normal-appearing host tissue but along the pia or via the central canal. In all paradigms, host axons were seen in association with or ensheathed by transplanted glia. Numerous myelinated axons were found within regions of grafted SCs but not OEG. The current study details the temporal survival, migration, axon association of SCs and OEG, and functional recovery after grafting into the contused spinal cord, research previously complicated due to a lack of quality, long-term markers for cell tracking in vivo. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
                Tissue Eng Regen Med
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1738-2696
                2212-5469
                June 2021
                January 30 2021
                June 2021
                : 18
                : 3
                : 453-465
                Article
                10.1007/s13770-020-00326-9
                © 2021

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