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      Surgical options for correction of refractive error following cataract surgery

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          Summary

          Refractive errors are frequently found following cataract surgery and refractive lens exchange. Accurate biometric analysis, selection and calculation of the adequate intraocular lens (IOL) and modern techniques for cataract surgery all contribute to achieving the goal of cataract surgery as a refractive procedure with no refractive error.

          However, in spite of all these advances, residual refractive error still occasionally occurs after cataract surgery and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) can be considered the most accurate method for its correction. Lens-based procedures, such as IOL exchange or piggyback lens implantation are also possible alternatives especially in cases with extreme ametropia, corneal abnormalities, or in situations where excimer laser is unavailable. In our review, we have found that piggyback IOL is safer and more accurate than IOL exchange.

          Our aim is to provide a review of the recent literature regarding target refraction and residual refractive error in cataract surgery.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Sources of error in intraocular lens power calculation.

          To identify and quantify sources of error in the refractive outcome of cataract surgery. AMO Groningen BV, Groningen, The Netherlands. Means and standard deviations (SDs) of parameters that influence refractive outcomes were taken or derived from the published literature to the extent available. To evaluate their influence on refraction, thick-lens ray tracing that allowed for asphericity was used. The numerical partial derivative of each parameter with respect to spectacle refraction was calculated. The product of the partial derivative and the SD for a parameter equates to its SD, expressed as spectacle diopters, which squared is the variance. The error contribution of a parameter is its variance relative to the sum of the variances of all parameters. Preoperative estimation of postoperative intraocular lens (IOL) position, postoperative refraction determination, and preoperative axial length (AL) measurement were the largest contributors of error (35%, 27%, and 17%, respectively), with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.6 diopter (D) for an eye of average dimensions. Pupil size variation in the population accounted for 8% of the error, and variability in IOL power, 1%. Improvement in refractive outcome requires better methods for predicting the postoperative IOL position. Measuring AL by partial coherence interferometry may be of benefit. Autorefraction increases precision in outcome measurement. Reducing these 3 major error sources with means available today reduces the MAE to 0.4 D. Using IOLs that compensate for the spherical aberration of the cornea would eliminate the influence of pupil size. Further improvement would require measuring the asphericity of the anterior surface and radius of the posterior surface of the cornea.
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            Prevalence of corneal astigmatism before cataract surgery.

            To analyze the prevalence and presentation patterns of corneal astigmatism in cataract surgery candidates. University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain. Refractive and keratometric values were measured before surgery in patients having cataract extraction. Descriptive statistics of refractive and keratometric cylinder data were analyzed and correlated by age ranges. Refractive and keratometric data from 4,540 eyes of 2,415 patients (mean age 60.59 years +/- 9.87 [SD]; range 32 to 87 years) differed significantly when the patients were divided into 10-year subsets. There was a trend toward less negative corneal astigmatism values, except the steepest corneal radius and the J(45) vector component, in older groups (Kruskal-Wallis, P<.01). In 13.2% of eyes, no corneal astigmatism was present; in 64.4%, corneal astigmatism was between 0.25 and 1.25 diopters (D) and in 22.2%, it was 1.50 D or higher. Corneal astigmatism less than 1.25 D was present in most cataract surgery candidates; it was higher in about 22%, with slight differences between the various age ranges. This information is useful for intraocular lens (IOL) manufacturers to evaluate which age ranges concentrate the parameters most frequently needed in sphere and cylinder powers and for surgeons to evaluate which IOLs provide the most effective power range.
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              One million cataract surgeries: Swedish National Cataract Register 1992-2009.

              This review summarizes data collected by the Swedish National Cataract Register, which now contains data pertaining to more than a million cataract surgery procedures, representing 95.6% of the surgeries performed in Sweden during 1992-2009. During this period, the rate of cataract surgery rose from 4.47 to 9.00 per 1000 inhabitants. The mean patient age increased until 1999 but has slowly decreased since then. Preoperative visual acuity has risen steadily. The distribution between the sexes was stable until 2000, after which the proportion of women slowly decreased. Registration of subjective benefit has brought new knowledge regarding indications and expectations. An improved questionnaire, Catquest-9SF has been used since 2008. The outcome register generally shows good results from the surgery. Endophthalmitis has decreased from 0.10% to below 0.040%. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Ahmeda.abdelghany@yahoo.com
                jlalio@vissum.com
                Journal
                Eye Vis (Lond)
                Eye Vis (Lond)
                Eye and Vision
                BioMed Central (London )
                2326-0254
                16 October 2014
                16 October 2014
                2014
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [ ]Clinical research fellow in Vissum Corporación Alicante, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Alicante, Spain
                [ ]Minia University, Minia, Egypt
                [ ]Vissum Corporación, Alicante, Spain
                [ ]Division of Ophthalmology, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Alicante, Spain
                [ ]Avda de Denia s/n, Edificio Vissum, Alicante, 03016 Spain
                Article
                2
                10.1186/s40662-014-0002-2
                4604120
                © Abdelghany and Alio; licensee BioMed Central 2014

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                © The Author(s) 2014

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